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Banks, Illegal Financial Flows and Management of Frozen Assets. Yaoundé, Cameroon June 6, 2014. GODFRED PENN LEAD COUNSEL & ADVISOR TO THE GENERAL COUNSEL AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP. INTRODUCTION & OUTLINE. QU I CK RUN DOWN. Illicit Financial Flows in Africa.

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Banks illegal financial flows and management of frozen assets
Banks, Illegal Financial Flows and Management of Frozen Assets

Yaoundé, Cameroon

June 6, 2014

GODFRED PENN

LEAD COUNSEL & ADVISOR TO THE GENERAL COUNSEL

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Introduction outline
INTRODUCTION & OUTLINE Assets

QU

I

CK

RUN

DOWN

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Illicit financial flows in africa
Illicit Financial Flows in Africa Assets

“Illicit financial flows involve the transfer of money earned through corruption, kickbacks, tax evasion, criminal activities, transactions involving contraband goods, and funds transferred in violation of exchange controls”

Source: Joint Report by AfDB and GFI (2013)

Source: African Financial Markets Initiative Website

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Global
GLOBAL Assets

  • The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) conducted a study to determine the magnitude of illicit funds generated by drug trafficking and organised crimes and to investigate to what extent these funds are laundered.

  • The report estimates that in 2009, criminal proceeds amounted to 3.6% of global GDP, with 2.7% (or USD 1.6 trillion) being laundered.


Regional distribution of illicit financial flows in africa
Regional Distribution of Illicit Financial Flows in Africa Assets

Africa lost between US$1.2-1.4 trillion through illicit financial flows over the period 1980 - 2009

  • The regions of West & Central Africa, North Africa and Southern Africa, together accounted for 95% of total cumulative illicit outflows from Africa over that period

Source: Joint Report by AfDB and GFI (2013)


Drivers of illicit financial flows in africa
Drivers of Illicit Financial Flows in Africa Assets

  • Embezzled rents and royalties from natural resource extraction activities

  • Tax evasion, tax havens, secrecy jurisdictions

  • Lack of transparency and accountability in financial systems and budget processes

  • Bribes and kickbacks in public procurement

  • Trade mispricing such as underpricing and overpricing of imports and exports

  • Money laundering

  • Lack of resources to monitor financial systems and enforce applicable laws

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Development impact of illicit financial flows
Development Impact of Illicit Financial Flows Assets

In 2009 illicit financial flows out of Africa were three times the amount of official development assistance received

  • Illicit financial flows are a form of capital flight, which results in reduced levels of local investment

  • Illicit financial flows exacerbate income inequality

  • Illicit activities jeopardize the integrity of the national financial system and weaken financial institutions

  • Weak and unregulated financial systems can further deter access to foreign investments and markets

  • The issue of illicit financial flows is particularly important now as Africa is receiving less official development assistance from developed countries


International legal frameworks
INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORKS Assets

  • There are legal instruments that regulate the tracing, freezing, seizing and confiscation of instrumentalities and proceeds of crime. E.G.:

    • 1998 UN Convention on Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (Vienna Convention)

    • 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism

    • 2004 UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Palermo Convention)

    • 2004 UN Convention against Corruption

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


International legal frameworks1
INTERNATIONAL LEGAL FRAMEWORKS Assets

  • Financial regulation standards are also set by

    • the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, for banks

    • the International Organisation of Securities Commissioners (IOSCO), for securities firms and markets

    • the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS), for insurance companies.

  • Other self-regulating bodies, such as the International Federation of Accountants or the Wolsberg Group of Banks, have also set standards for their own area.

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


The fatf
THE FATF Assets

  • The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) was established in 1989 by the G-7 countries to respond more effectively to Money Laundering (ML).

  • The FATF Forty Recommendations require the criminalization of ML.

  • In addition, the recommendations call on countries to adopt legislative and other measures in order to:

    • freeze, seize and confiscate criminal proceeds;

    • waive bank secrecy laws to permit financial institutions to monitor and report suspicious transactions;

    • protect those reporting these transactions from civil and criminal liability;

    • establish financial investigation units; and,

    • cooperate fully in international law enforcement efforts to combat ML.

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


The fatf1
THE FATF Assets

  • The FATF is also involved in monitoring the progress of members in complying with its recommendations.

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


The role of multilateral development banks
The Role of Multilateral Development Banks Assets

  • As financial institutions operating in the global financial system, MDBs must tighten fiduciary safeguards and establish and maintain internal procedures to prevent and detect corruption and money laundering

    • Examples: Develop effective internal policies, train and educate employees, implement effective audit functions

  • Provide financial and technical assistance to member countries wishing to implement international standards for anti-corruption and anti-money laundering measures

  • Support member countries with financial sector reforms to strengthen banking supervision and regulation of financial institutions

  • Coordinate, cooperate and exchange best practices with other MDBs to harmonize efforts for combatting illicit flows

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Role of afdb group
ROLE OF AFDB GROUP Assets

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Role of afdb group1
ROLE OF AFDB GROUP Assets

  • UNDER GAP I

    • With the central objective of assisting African countries to build capable and responsive states, the Bank’s work in governance also targeted the specific needs of fragile states by encouraging them to  increase transparency and accountability in the management of public resources.

    • Governance indicators have shown steady improvements.

      • EG. According to the Bank Group’s “Development Effectiveness Review on Governance”, published in 2012, across the 14 countries where the African Development Bank Group invested in revenue systems, tax revenue rose from 10.5% to 14.7% of GDP, while tax rates for businesses declined from 94% of commercial profits to 54%.

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Afdb group s gap ii
AFDB GROUP’S GAP II Assets

  • To respond to the continent’s accelerating transformation, the new Bank Group Strategy for 2013-2022 has two core objectives: (i) achieving inclusive growth; and (ii) gradual transition to green growth.

  • The Bank aims to support Africa’s transformation through five core operational priorities one of which is Governance and Accountability (G&A) which provides the strategic platform for GAP II.

  • GAP II builds on the achievements of the first “Governance Strategic Direction and Action Plan (GAP I)” for 2008-2012

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP



Afdb group s gap ii1
AFDB GROUP’S GAP II Assets

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Afdb group s gap ii2
AFDB GROUP’S GAP II Assets

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Preventing illicit financial flows in afdb group private sector operations
Preventing Illicit Financial Flows in AfDB Group Private Sector Operations

  • The AfDB Group has taken specific measures to prevent and detect illicit financial activity in its private sector operations.

  • All private sector financing legal documentation contains integrity provisions that allow the AfDB Group to exit the project in the event that a Borrower engages in illicit activities.

  • As a condition for financing, the Borrower must covenant that:

  • It has not and will not engage in money laundering activities

  • It has not and will not engage in Sanctionable Practices

  • All financing provided to it by Shareholders is not of illicit origin

  • It has not and will not do business with entities and persons that are on the sanctions lists provided by the UN, World Bank, EU and United States Treasury

  • It is not, and its shareholders are not, on any applicable sanctions lists

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


The afdb group anticorruption sanctions regime
The AfDB Group Anticorruption & Sanctions Regime Sector Operations

Sanctionable Practices = any corrupt practice, fraudulent practice, collusive practice, coercive practice, or obstructive practice carried out in connection with AfDB Group projects

  • Corrupt practices must be effectively investigated and sanctioned. A strong sanctions regime can provide an effective deterrent effect

  • In August 2013, the Bank Group enhanced its sanctions procedures

  • The Sanctions Procedures govern the process for investigating allegations of Sanctionable Practices that have been made in relation to Bank Group-financed operations

  • The Bank Group’s Integrity and Anti-Corruption Department investigates allegations of sanctionable practices

  • Sanctions that may be imposed include: Letter of Reprimand, Debarment, and Financial Penalties

  • Proceeds from financial penalties imposed on sanctioned parties are invested in programs aimed at combatting corruption

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


Moving forward
Moving Forward Sector Operations

  • International and regional cooperation to combat illicit financial flows in Africa is on the rise, allowing for greater dialogue, exchange of best practices, coordination of efforts and wider implementation of preventative measures

  • Banks can play multiple roles in combatting illicit financial flows:

    • Improving internal procedures for preventing and detecting corruption and money laundering

    • Supporting regional member countries in their efforts to curtail illicit financial flows

AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK GROUP


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