Noun forms
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Noun Forms. Making singular nouns plural using spelling rules. What are Nouns?. A noun is a type of word which refers to a person, place, or thing. Nouns can be conjugated in either singular or plural form.

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Noun forms

Noun Forms

Making singular nouns plural using spelling rules


What are nouns

What are Nouns?

A noun is a type of word which refers to a person, place, or thing.

Nouns can be conjugated in either singular or plural form.

A singular noun refers to just one person, place, or thing (for example, a bat or a ship).

A plural noun refers to multiple people, places, or things (for example, bats or ships).


Rule 1 add s

Rule #1- add “s”

Most nouns can be pluralized simply by adding an -s at the end of the word.

edge/edges

girl/girls

song/songs

bag/bags

cat/cats

boy/boys

day/days


Rule 2 add es to nouns ending in s ch z sh and x

Rule #2- add “es” to nouns ending in- s, ch, z, sh, and x

Nouns which end in the letters “s”, “z”, “ch”, “sh”, and “x”, “es” at the end.

glass/glasses

buzz/buzzes

dish/dishes

box/boxes

bush/bushes

witch/witches

switch/switches


Rule 3 nouns ending in o

Rule #3-Nouns ending in “o”

For words ending in the letter “o”, sometimes they are pluralized by adding “s”, while other words must be pluralized by adding “es”. These words must be memorized because there is no simple rule to explain the differences.

echo/echoes

embargo/embargoes

hero/heroes

potato/potatoes

veto/vetoes

tomato/tomatoes

torpedo/torpedoes


Rule continued

Rule continued

Examples (s):

Most nouns ending in “o” preceded by a vowel are pluralized by simply adding “s”. Some other “o” nouns do this, too:

auto/autos

folio/folios

cameo/cameos

portfolio/portfolios

kilo/kilos

photo/photos

zoo/zoos


More examples

More examples

memo/memos

solo/solos - dealing with music

soprano/sopranos – dealing with music

studio/studios – dealing with music

pimento/pimentos

tattoo/tattoos

video/videos

piano/pianos – dealing with music

pro/pros

kangaroo/kangaroos


Rule 4 nouns ending in y

Rule #4- Nouns ending in “y”

For nouns ending in the letter y, replace the ending y with “ies”. Notice the preceding letter is a consonant.

baby/babies

story/stories

poppy/poppies

baby/babies

daisy/daisies

spy/spies

lady/ladies


Rule continued1

Rule continued

Note that for words ending in “y” preceded by a vowel (a complex vowel sound), an “s” is simply added, as usual.

day/days

toy/toys

essay/essays

turkey/turkeys

chimney/chimneys

play/plays

joy/joys

valley/valleys

alley/alleys

volley/volleys


Practice make the following plural and give the rule

Practice: make the following plural and give the rule

Giant

Boy

City

Brush

Couch

Lady

Box

Potato

Piano

Alley


Answers

Answers

Giants- just add “s”

Boys- just add “s” because vowel before “y” because the “o” is a vowel

Cities- drop “y” add “ies” because a consonant precedes the “y”

Brushes- ends in “sh” so add “es”

Couches- ends in “sh” so add “es”

Ladies- drop “y” add “ies” because of consonant precedes

Boxes- ends in “x” so add “es”

Potatoes- ends in “o”

Pianos- ends in “o”

Alleys- add “s” because vowel comes before “y”


Rule 5 nouns ending in f or fe

Rule #5- nouns ending in “f” or “fe”

For some nouns ending in “f” or “fe”, replace the “f” or “fe” with “ves”:

calf/calves

elf/elves

half/halves

hoof/hooves

leaf/leaves

life/lives

loaf/loaves

scarf/scarves


More examples1

More examples

self/selves

sheaf/sheaves

wolf/wolves

shelf/shelves

thief/thieves

knife/knives

wife/wives


Rule 6 some nouns change the vowel sound

Rule #6- Some nouns change the vowel sound

fireman/firemen – “an” to “en”

man/men – “an” to “en”

woman/women “an” to “en”

foot/feet – “oo” to “ee”

goose/geese – “oo” to “ee”

tooth/teeth – “oo” to “ee”

louse/lice – “ouse” to “ice”

mouse/mice – “ouse” to “ice”

child/children –Old English plural

ox/oxen – Old English plural


Rule 7 nouns ending in is

Rule #7- Nouns ending in “is”

For nouns in which the singular form ends in “is”, the plural form will end in “es”.

hypothesis/hypotheses

diagnosis/diagnoses

ellipsis/ellipses

analysis/analyses

basis/bases

crisis/crises

thesis/theses

oasis/oases


More examples2

More examples

synthesis/syntheses

synopsis/synopses

emphasis/emphases

neurosis/neuroses

paralysis/paralyses

parenthesis/parentheses


Rule 8 nouns ending in um

Rule #8- Nouns ending in “um”

Nouns ending in “um” change to “a”.

bacterium/bacteria

datum/data

curriculum/curricula

medium/media

memorandum/memoranda

symposium/symposia

erratum/errata

addendum/addenda

stratum/strata


Practice change to plural giving rule

Practice: change to plural giving rule

Mouse

Synopsis

Knife

Medium

Child

Thesis

Woman

Curriculum

Basis

Bacterium


Answers1

Answers

Mice- change “ous’ to “ice”

Synopses- change “is” to “es”

Knives- change “fe” to “ves”

Media- change “um” to “a”

Children- Old English word

Theses- change “is” to “es”

Woman- change “an” to “en”-vowel change

Curricula- change “um” to “a”

Bases- change “is” to “es”

Bacteria- change “um” to “a”


Rule 9 nouns ending in on

Rule #9- Nouns ending in “on”

Nouns ending in “on” change to “a”.

criterion/criteria

phenomenon/phenomena

automaton/automata


Rule 10 nouns ending in a

Rule #10- Nouns ending in “a”

Nouns ending in “a” change to “ae”. Just add an “e” to the end after the “a”.

alga/algae

amoeba/amoebae

larva/larvae

formula/formulae

antenna/ antennae

nebula/nebulae

vertebra/vertebrae

vita/vitae


Rule 11 nouns ending in ix or ex

Rule #11- Nouns ending in “ix” or “ex”

Nouns ending in “ix” or “ex” change to “ices”.

It is acceptable to add “es” to some of these words.

appendix/appendices

index/ indices

matrix /matrices

vertex/ vertices

vortex/ vortices

apex/ apices


Rule 12 nouns ending in us

Rule #12- Nouns ending in “us”

Nouns ending in “us” change to “i”.

alumnus/alumni

bacillus/bacilli

cactus/cacti

focus/foci

stimulus/stimuli

focus/foci

octopus/octopi

radius/radii

stimulus/stimuli

terminus/termini


Rule 13 nouns ending in us

Rule #13- Nouns ending in “us”

Nouns ending in “us” change to “ora” or “era”

corpus/corpora

genus/genera


Rule 14 nouns ending in eau

Rule #14- Nouns ending in “eau”

Nouns ending in “eau” change to “eaux” by just adding and “

bureau/ bureaux (or leave as it is)

beau/beaux

portmanteau/portmanteaux

tableau/tableaux


Practice make plural giving rule

Practice: make plural giving rule

Cactus

Index

Formula

Criterion

Nebula

Bureau

Genus

Alumnus

Phenomenon

Stimulus


Answers2

Answers

Cacti- change “us” to “i”

Indices- change “is” to “ices”

Formulae- change “a” to “ae”- add “e”

Criteria- change “on” to “a”

Nebula- change “a” to “ae” – add “e”

Bureaux- add “x”

Genera- change “us” to “era”

Alumni- change “us” to “i”

Phenomena – change “on” to “a”

Stimuli- change “us” to “i”


Possessive plurals

Possessive Plurals

Plural nouns ending in “s”, add an apostrophe after the “s” to show possession.

The Johnsons' farm

Singers' voices

The thieves' guild


Possessive nouns

Possessive nouns

For plural nouns not ending in “s”, add the apostrophe before adding the “s”.

Women's soccer

Children's books


Possessive hyphenated nouns

Possessive hyphenated nouns

To make a hyphenated noun plural, add the “s” to the main word.

If it is singular, add apostrophe before the “s”

Bother-in-law’s

If it is plural, add apostrophe “s” to the end of the word.

Brothers-in-law’s


Always plural or singular

Always Plural or Singular

Some nouns are always plural (things that come in pairs):

pants

clothes

binoculars

jeans

forceps

trousers

tongs

shorts


More examples3

More examples

tweezers

people

pajamas

police

shorts

glasses

scissors

mathematics


Aggregate nouns

Aggregate Nouns

Some nouns always end in “s”.

accommodations

amends

archives

congratulations

stairs

crossroads

gallows

thanks

barracks


More examples4

More examples

goods

headquarters

news

means

series

species


Nouns with the same form

Nouns with the Same Form

Some nouns have the same form for singular and plural, such as fish and animals. (Note that not all fish have the irregular plural form, though--e.g., one shark becomes two sharks)

salmon

trout

deer

sheep

swine

offspring

snow


Continue

continue

Cotton

Information

Advice

Knowledge

Furniture

Police


Choose which one is correct give the rule

Choose which one is correct-give the rule

A. CottonsB. Cotton

A. Jones’ houseB. Jone’s house

A. DeersB. Deer

A. ScissorsB. Scissor

A. SheepB. Sheeps

A. Accommodations B. Accommodation

A. SnowsB. Snow

A. PolicesB. Police

A. sisters-in-law’sB. sister-in-laws’

A. knowledgesB. knowledge


Answers3

Answers

B- cotton is plural without “s”

A- the name Jones ends in “s”, so add apostrophe after the “s”

B- deer does not change form

A- scissors always ends in “s”- (always plural)

A- sheep does not change

A- accommodations always end in “s”

B- snow does not change form

B- police does not change form

A- add “s” to main word to make plural-add apostrophe before the last “s” in word

B- Knowledge does not change form


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