Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of XBs
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Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of XBs. Dave Russell niversity of Amsterdam In collaboration with: Fraser Lewis, Dipankar Maitra, Robert Dunn, Sera Markoff, James Miller-Jones, Kieran O’Brien, Piergiorgio Casella, Peter Jonker, Jeroen Homan,

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Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of XBs

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Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of XBs

Dave Russell

niversity of Amsterdam

In collaboration with:

Fraser Lewis, Dipankar Maitra, Robert Dunn, Sera Markoff, James Miller-Jones,

Kieran O’Brien, Piergiorgio Casella, Peter Jonker, Jeroen Homan,

Manuel Linares, Rob Fender, Elena Gallo, Valeriu Tudose

12th October 2010


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

X-ray Binary Jets

Black hole XB: GRO J1655-40

Tingay et al. 1995

Neutron star XB: Sco X-1

Fomalont et al. 2001

Radio emission: is synchrotron in nature

 unambiguously originates in collimated outflows (2 types of jet)

The spectrum of a steady, hard state jet (to zeroth order):

Optically thickOptically thin

Turnover 

log

log

RadioX-ray?

  • The jets are radiatively inefficient, and the power carried in the jets is uncertain and highly dependent on the position of the turnover/break(s)

  • Does the turnover change with luminosity; how does the jet spectrum evolve during transitions?

  • The turnover also helps constrain the synchrotron contribution to X-ray


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Can we see the jet at higher energies?

Well…

 Optical outburst light curves and spectra similar to dwarf novae  disc

 Actually, the X-ray heated disc tends to dominate over the viscous disc (reprocessing)

Courtesy of Kieran O'Brien

Hynes et al. 2002 (XTE J1859+226)

Kuulkers 1998


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

But wait…

In the last decade evidence shows that:

 the jet is sometimes visible in optical and NIR

Mirabel et al. (1998) showed NIR flares from GRS 1915+105 (found by Fender et al. 1997) originate in the jets


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

But wait…

In the last decade evidence shows that:

 the jet is sometimes visible in optical and NIR

 the turnover in the jet spectrum probably lies somewhere in the IR

> 90% 

of flux is from the

jet in the brightest

hard state

Homan et al. (2005) showed NIR emission from GX 339-4 has negative spectral index in the hard state, and is quenched in the soft state

Corbel & Fender 2002

Data from Homan et al. 2005, Jain et al. 2001, Buxton & Bailyn 2004


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Multi-wavelength monitoring of GX 339-4

F. Lewis et al. in prep, F. Lewis PhD thesis


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Multi-wavelength monitoring of GX 339-4

High amplitude variability on short timescales: monitoring the flickering

See also P. Casella’s talk, next!

Infrared SEDs from the VLT:

We can infer the average SED by taking lots of data over long timescales

“its like taking a simultaneous 2-month long exposure”

Time resolution

typically ~100 sec


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

So where is the jet break?

  • Not clear in GX 339-4 SEDs

  • Hynes et al. 2006 had simultaneous NIR J,H,K observations of XTE J1118+480

  • They found the NIR to be consistent with optically thin synchrotron


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

So where is the jet break?

  • Not clear in GX 339-4 SEDs

  • Hynes et al. 2006 had simultaneous NIR J,H,K observations of XTE J1118+480

  • They found the NIR to be consistent with optically thin synchrotron

  • Jet break must reside in the mid-IR

  • Very few mid-IR data of LMXBs in outburst exist in the literature

  • See also Migliari et al. 2006, 2007, 2010: Spitzer 4 – 24 micron detections of the BH GRO J1655-40 and the NS 4U 0614+091

  • Our team have approved time on the VLT with VISIR – the first data came in this summer

  • 8 – 12 micron imaging

10-micron detections van Paradijs et al. 1994 

50 mJy! Probably jet?


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Some of the first mid-IR data of outbursting LMXBs

The jet is not there 

Russell et al. in prep.

Data of GX 339-4 during a state transition, type B QPO seen (P. Casella) – soft intermediate state


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Some of the first mid-IR data of outbursting LMXBs

VLT VISIR

Data of XTE J1752-223 during the hard state decline of its 2009 – 2010 outburst

(EVLA radio data courtesy of J. Miller-Jones, P. Jonker, ATel #2278, NIR also from ATel #2268)


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

What about neutron stars?

Migliari et al. 2010 identify the jet break in 4U 0614+091:

In the mid-IR: between 8 and 24 microns


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

What about neutron stars?

Optical, NIR, UV and X-ray monitoring of the 2008 double-peaked outburst of IGR J00291+5934

Lewis, Russell, Jonker, Linares, et al. 2010, A&A, 517, A72


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

What about neutron stars?

Jet break around the H-band? (1.6 microns)

Optical, NIR, UV and X-ray monitoring of the 2008 double-peaked outburst of IGR J00291+5934

Lewis, Russell, Jonker, Linares, et al. 2010, A&A, 517, A72


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Introducing the 2000 outburst of XTE J1550-564

Well monitored in X-ray, optical and near-infrared (NIR)

Optical & infrared data published in Jain et al. 2001; radio in Corbel et al. 2001

X-ray analysis as in Dunn et al. 2010

We can separate disc and jet emission

Assumes continuation of the exponential decay of disc flux

Jet has optically thin spectrum


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Could it be a synchrotron jet dominating X-ray?

Russell, Maitra, Dunn & Markoff 2010, MNRAS, 405, 1759

NIR jet flux is proportional to X-ray flux

Markoff, Falcke & Fender 2001 XTE J1118+480

Variability info:

Kalemci et al. 2001,

Kalemci’s talk at IAU

Symposium, Buenos

Aires 2010

Russell, Maccarone, Körding & Homan 2007

α (NIR  optical) ~ -0.7

α (optical  X-ray) = -0.7

α (X-ray power law) = -0.7

(photon index = 1.7)

α (X-ray power law before) = -0.6

A single power law

decreasing in flux

by a factor of ten


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Dunn et al. 2010:

60% of BH outbursts show this softening on the hard state decay

Is the jet the reason for the softening?

A possible revised picture for BH outbursts

Fender, Gallo & Jonker 2003:

Energetics are jet dominated at low luminosities in the hard state

Jet could dominate X-ray flux in the hard state between


Isolating the jet in broadband spectra of xbs

Multi-wavelength monitoring of GX 339-4

Extinction plays a massive role in optical-UV SEDs

F. Lewis et al. in prep, F. Lewis PhD thesis


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