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Imam Ali (a.s.), Part II. Chronology: after the Prophet (pbuh) A.S. Hashim, MD. After The Prophet: The Aftermath. Without a job, Ali finds a job at an orchard belonging to a Jewish person Fatima is sick Ali Tutors his children, along with Ibn Abbas

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imam ali a s part ii

Imam Ali (a.s.), Part II

Chronology: after the Prophet (pbuh)

A.S. Hashim, MD

after the prophet the aftermath
After The Prophet: The Aftermath
  • Without a job, Ali finds a job at an orchard belonging to a Jewish person
  • Fatima is sick
  • Ali Tutors his children, along with Ibn Abbas
  • Ali buys one slave each week then set him free
  • Ali Writes the Quran according to the order the Ayahs were revealed
after the prophet the aftermath1
After the Prophet: The aftermath
  • Ali Under pressure to give allegiance to Abu Bakr
  • Fatima campaigns for Ali
  • Fatima gives a stirring speech at the Masjid of the Prophet
  • Fatima’s health deteriorates fast
  • Tough times:
    • Financially
    • Politically
    • At home
ali during khilaafah of abu bakr
Ali during Khilaafah of Abu Bakr
  • Ali Finishes writing the chronology of the Quran
  • Fatima dies: Ali left with four children
  • Fatima buried at night according to her Will
  • Only few are notified and attend burial
  • Ali gives Allegiance to Abu Bakr
war of the renouncers
War of the renouncers! حروب الرده
  • For sake of Islam’s wellbeing, Ali gives support to Abu Bakr
  • Ali begins writing Tafseer of the Quran called Mus’haf Fatima in Fatima’s honor
  • Continues tutoring his children
  • Continues to tutor Ibn Abbas after work
  • Continues to buy then free a slave every week
ali during abu bakr s reign
Ali during Abu Bakr’s reign
  • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain learn to write
  • Ibn Abbas heads toward being scholarly
  • Ali the Marji\' (the Reference)
  • Ali frees an average of one slave per week (about 100 during Abu Bakr’s Khilaafah)
  • Condition of the Ummah seems to stabilize
omar appointed as khalifa
Omar appointed as Khalifa
  • Abu Bakr appoints Omar to Khilaafah
  • Ali gives support to Omar
  • Ali active in Omar\'s Council
  • Ali teaches and educates
  • Ali now married again
  • Ali\'s family expands, he teaches at home
ali s during omar s reign
Ali’s during Omar’s reign
  • Ali finishes off writing Tafseer of the Quran
  • Ali writes the wealth of Hadith
  • Ali starts writing the Ah\'kaam
  • Al-Hasan helps his father in the writing
  • Omar marries Ali’s daughter: Umm Kalthoom
  • Ali continues to buy then free one slave per week (520) during Omar\'s Reign
ali s writings
Ali’s writings during Abu Bakr and Omar’s Khilaafah:

Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following:

Quran in chorological order

Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima)

Hadith (Saheefa of Ali)

Ah’kaam

Ali’s writings
ali during uthman s reign
Ali during Uthman’s Reign
  • Ali advises Uthman at first
  • Ali detects a mellow ruler in Uthman
  • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain are married
  • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain in North Africa\'s campaign against the Byzantine. They reach Carthage in Libya to-days.
  • Carthage battle decisive, Muslims victorious
ali and umm al baneen
Ali and Umm Al-Baneen
  • Ali Marries Umm Al-Baneen
  • Ali has 5 boys through Umm Al-Baneen:
    • Al-Abbas, 13 Years younger than Al-Husain
    • One (nicknamed) Abu Bakr
    • One (nicknamed) Omar
    • One (nicknamed) Uthman
    • Ali
uthman in mid term i
Uthman in mid-term I
  • Uthman listens to his relative Marwan,
  • Ali’s advice is ignored frequently
  • Uthman appoints corrupt relatives as State Governors
  • Uthman mistreats Ibn Masood and Abu Dhar
uthman in mid term ii
Uthman in mid-term II
  • People object to Uthman’s rule and revolt
  • Ali tries to help Uthman
  • Uthman surrounded by the rebels, is defended by Al-Hasan and Al-Husain among others
  • Al-Hasan gets wounded defending Uthman
  • Uthman is killed by the rebellious men
  • Ali is upset to the extreme
ali during uthman s reign i
Ali during Uthman’s reign I
  • Ali finishes writing Al-Ah\'kaam
  • Ali writes the Jafr:
    • White Jafr
    • Red Jafr
  • Ali compares the Quranic text he wrote with the one written during Khilaafah of Uthman. Surahs were the exact replica
ali s writings1
Ali’s writings during:

Abu Bakr,

Omar, and

Uthman’s Khilaafah:

Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following:

Quran in chorological order

Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima)

Hadith (Saheefa of Ali)

Ah’kaam

Al-Jafr

White Jafr: Prophets and early times

Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam

Ali’s writings
ali during uthman s reign ii
Ali during Uthman’s reign II
  • Worrisome conditions of the Ummah
  • Ali trying to diffuse discord
  • Continues to be the Marji’
  • Tutors the new children born to him
  • Ali continues to buy then free one slave per week. He freed 600 during Khilaafah of Uthman.
imam ali a s the khalifa
Imam Ali (a.s.) the Khalifa
  • Ali\'s administration: Exceptionally fair
  • Wants to distribute the wealth fairly but many wealthy people object
  • A\'isha, Talha, and Zubair agitate
  • A\'isha, Talha, and Zubair revolt, claiming to avenge Uthman’s blood
  • Benu Umayya join the rebels full force
  • Mu’awiya rebels in a sneaky way
confrontation at basra
Ali’s Forces

12,000

Includes numerous Sahaaba (said 300)

Al-Hasan and Al-Husain

Muhammad son of Abu Bakr

Ali’s forces Prevail

The other side:

Includes Talha, Zubair, and A’isha

Local people of Basrah

Most of Benu Umayya clan

The fired governor of Yemen who stole the treasury of Yemen

Confrontation at Basra
jamal battle
Jamal Battle
  • Protracted negotiations
  • Persuades Zubair not to fight
  • Zubair quits
  • The battle: Goes fast and about to end
  • A’isha: On top of a camel urges to go on fighting
  • People rally around the camel
  • Incapacitating the camel ends the fight
jamal battle ii
Jamal Battle II
  • Ali lets A’isha be at home in Basrah to rest
  • 40 Guards in company of A’isha on her way to Medina
  • Brother of A’isha in charge of the escorting guards (Muhammad son of Abu Bakr)
  • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain escort A’isha to the boundary of Basrah
  • The 40 guards turn out to be women dressed as men
jamal battle iii
Jamal Battle III
  • Benu Umayya, forming large part of the forces
    • Set free after the Battle
  • Talha: was Killed by Marwan ibn Hakam
  • Zubair: Did not participate
  • The casualties: Fairly high
  • The aftermath: Benu Umayya now join Mu’awiya to fight Ali in Siffin
kufa the capital
Kufa the Capital
  • Kufa the New Capital because:
    • Kufa is central in the Islamic Ummah
    • Center of the bread basket of the area (Iraq)
    • Closer to areas of revolts
    • Possibility of better support to Ali
  • Proved less disciplined and less reliable
mu awiya and siffin
Mu’awiya and Siffin
  • Mu’awiya claiming revenge for Uthman’s blood
  • Mu’awiya’s forces move north to Siffin
  • Mu’awiya cuts off water supply to Ali
  • Ali’s forces reach Siffin, overpower guards preventing water
  • Ali’s side generously allows water to Mu’awiya forces
siffin
Siffin
  • Ali, trying to prevent bloodshed, sends negotiating delegates to Mu’awiya
  • Negotiations continue for one month
  • Negotiations fail
  • Battle of Siffin starts
siffin ii
Siffin II
  • Siffin Battle:
    • Duration: 9 Days
    • Severity: Severe in many days
    • Casualties: Thousands dead and wounded
  • Ammar Unique Role.
importance of ammar
Importance of Ammar
  • Ammar was in Ali’s camp
  • The Prophet (pbuh) told Ammar 30 Yrs earlier:

يا عمار سوف تقتلك الفئة الباغيه

”O’ Ammar, you will be killed by the malicious group.”

  • Ammar along with 400 companions fought Mu’awiya bravely until Ammar was killed.
  • A lot of Commotion was the result in Mu’awiya’s camp.
near the end of battle
Near the end of battle
  • As Ali’s forces reach near Mu’awiya’s Headquarters in victory:
    • Mu’awiya knows how religious Ali’s side is
    • Mu’awiya gives commands to lift 500 Qurans on tips of Spears (thus desecrating them)
    • Mu’awiya asks for arbitration
    • Commotion is the result in Ali’s Camp
  • Ali is forced for Arbitration by his troops
tricking ali s forces
Tricking Ali’s forces
  • Ibn Ash’ath and other undercover agents in Ali’s camp cajoled and bribed by Mu’awiya, they work for him
  • Ibn Ash’ath and Khariji insist on their demands to arbitrate
  • Ali is forced toward Arbitration
  • Ali chooses the brilliant Ibn Abbas to represent him
arbitration
Arbitration
  • Ali wanted Ibn Abbas, but Khariji insisted instead on Al-Ashari to represent Ali
  • Al-Ashari was not so bright
  • Ali had to consent
  • Mu’awiya chose Ibn Aas to represent him
  • Ibn Aas is very cunning
  • Both sides met a year later in a far away place to negotiate
arbitration ii
Arbitration II
  • The cunning Ibn Aas tricks Al-Ashari
    • Ibn Aas let Al-Ashari proclaim both Mu’awiya and Ali are to leave office then let people choose a Khalifa
    • Ibn Aas followed by saying: Ali should leave office but Mu’awiya is to stay in Power
  • Commotion was the result because of the lies and deception of Ibn Aas
  • They return disappointed and disillusioned
khariji
Khariji
  • Khariji revolt against Ali
  • Ali argues with Khariji, many decide not to fight against Ali
  • 3000 Khariji insist of fighting Ali in Nahrawan, in Iraq
  • Ali Defeats Khariji in Nahrawan
  • Looks for the crippled man the Prophet foretold: They find him after 3 day search
nahjul balaaghah
Nahjul Balaaghah
  • Nahjul Balaaghah is a collection of 54 Sermons, 212 sayings, and 48 letters by Ali
  • Collected by Al-Shareef al-Radhee
  • Full of Gems of Wisdom, it deals with numerous subjects:
    • Theology
    • History
    • Human Relationship
  • Taught all over in universities over the past centuries
prediction of the prophet about ali s end
30 years earlier, the Prophet said to Ali:

The most evil of evildoers is the one who will wet this (beard) with the blood From this (forehead)

إنَّ أشقى الأشـقـيين مَن يُخضِّبُ هذه بهذه  

وأشار إلى لحيته ثم رأسه

Prediction of the Prophet About Ali’s end
ibn muljim the khariji
Ibn Muljim, the Khariji
  • Ibn Muljim, one of the deviators (Khariji),
  • Along with 2 others planned to kill
    • Ali
    • Mu’awiya
    • Ibn Aas
  • These Khariji were involved in Nahrawan
  • They planned to avenge
  • Mu’awiya and Ibn Aas escaped being killed
ali assassinated
Ali assassinated
  • Ibn Muljim with a poisoned sword, was in hiding to kill Ali
  • Ali in Kufa Masjid had come to lead morning prayer, it was dark with poor visibility
  • It was the 19th of Ramadhan, Yr 40 Hijri
  • While Ali was in Sujood absorbed in prayer
  • Ibn Muljim jumped and hit Ali at the head
ali s assassination i
Ali’s assassination I
  • Upon being so wounded Ali said:

فزت ورب الكعبه

I have won by the Lord of the Ka’ba

  • A lot of commotion ensued
  • Taken home Ali gave final advice to his son Al-Hasan, and other children
  • Two days later he died on Leilatul Qadr 21st of Ramadhan
ali s assassination ii
Ali’s assassination II
  • Ali’s last words were:

فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ

He with the slightest act of goodness will so be rewarded

And he with the slightest act of evil deeds will so be rewarded

ali is buried
Ali is buried
  • Ali was taken to Najaf for burial, many miles from Kufa
  • Burial place remained secret, known to family and few others
  • Years later Imam Al-Saadiq declared the whereabouts of the burial site
  • A tomb was established then a town arose around it
  • It became the center of visitation and learning
ali the person
Ali the person
  • Imam Ali\'s self was molded completely by the Islamic ideals
  • Ali\'s personality was overpowering, he was an overachiever
  • Ali\'s brilliance and farsightedness were striking
  • Ali set to teach, inform, and help others learn about Islam
  • Ali was an idealist, and nothing could influence him to deviate from these ideals
ali the person ii
Ali the person II
  • Ali\'s ideals had to be in a head-on clash with the opportunist, demagogues, and power-hungry,
  • Ali stood in the face of deceit, duplicity, trickery, hypocrisy, greed, and treachery, of corrupt Benu Umayya
  • Ali was a compulsive perfectionist when it came to Islam
  • Ali stood for justice and freedom of choice, and the Holy Book and Sunnah
ali assassinated iii
Ali assassinated III
  • Ali lived to be 63 year old, just as the Prophet (pbuh)
    • He designated Al-Hasan as the 2nd Imam
    • He gave advice to Al-Hasan as written in Nahjul Balaaghah
  • After Al-Hasan’s agreement with Mu’awiya, the family returned to Medina to resume teaching Islam
ali s shrine in najaf
Imam Ali’s Shrine: Multitudes of visitors every year.

Inside it reflects reverence that uniquely affects the heart.

Ali’s Shrine in Najaf
khilaafah a birds eye view
KhilaafahA birds-eye view
  • Khilaafah means the phenomenon of succession to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
  • This phenomenon is viewed in certain ways as explained in the next two slides:
khilaafah a birds eye view 1
Khilaafah: A birds-eye view #1
  • VIEW POINT I
    • The phenomenon, the circumstance, the mode of choice and selection of the Khalifas are to be taken as they are
  • This view is taken by the Sunni
khilaafah a birds eye view 2
Khilaafah: A birds-eye view #2
  • VIEW POINT II
    • The phenomenon would have been remarkably different had the wishes of Prophet Muhammad been observed.
  • This view is taken by the Shi’a 
be in allah s care
BE IN ALLAH’S CARE

Thank you and May God Bless you.

Dr. A.S. Hashim

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