The cardiovascular system
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The Cardiovascular System. How are materials transported through the body?  What does the heart do?  What’s in our blood?. Overview. The Cardiovascular System. Components : Heart Blood vessels Blood. The Cardiovascular System. The body’s transportation system Functions :

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The Cardiovascular System

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The Cardiovascular System

How are materials transported through the body?

What does the heart do?

What’s in our blood?


Overview


The Cardiovascular System

  • Components:

    • Heart

    • Blood vessels

    • Blood


The Cardiovascular System

  • The body’s transportation system

  • Functions:

    • Brings oxygen and nutrients to body’s cells

    • Takes away waste products


The Cardiovascular System

  • In multicellular organisms…

    • Cells can only exchange materials with the fluids immediately surrounding them

    • Not every cell is touching the small intestine (for nutrients) or the lungs (for oxygen)

    • So we need a transportation system!


Intro to the Cardiovascular System

1. The Heart

atria

ventricles

aorta

right atrium

cardiac muscle

diaphragm

bony thorax

friction

epicardium

endocardium

second

2. Blood Flow

left atrium

left ventricle

right ventricle

aorta

aortic

superior vena cava

inferior vena cava

pulmonary arteries

pulmonary veins

bicuspid/mitral (valve)

pulmonary semilunar (valve)

capillaries

lungs


The Heart

  • Fist-sized

  • Located within the bony thorax, between the lungs, apex points to the left

  • Average adult = 72 bpm

  • Heart pumps ~70 mL per beat


The Heart

  • Average adult = 72 bpm

  • Heart pumps ~70 mL per beat

  • Average person’s heart pumps 4000 gallons in one day!

  • That’s enough blood in one year to fill an Olympic-sized swimming pool!


The Heart

  • Function: pumps blood through body

  • Structure: a double pump

    • 4 chambers

    • walls mostly cardiac muscle

Looks like this! 


The Heart

2 separate pumps:

  • Pulmonary circulation

    • To the lungs

    • Right side

  • Systemic circulation

    • To the body

    • Left side

  • Cardiac circulation

    • To the heart itself (myocardium)


The Heart

4 chambers:

  • 2 atria = upper chambers

    • Receive blood

  • 2 ventricles = lower chambers

    • Discharge/pump blood

    • Larger, w/thicker walls


The Heart

  • Valves prevent blood from flowing backwards

    ONE WAY TRAFFIC!


The Heart

Blood:

  • Blue if deoxygenated

  • Red if oxygenated

  • Blue blood goes to lungs to get O2

  • Red blood goes to body to deliver O2


The Heart

Blood flow through the heart:

Animation


The Heart


Blood Vessels

  • Average adult body contains over 60,000 miles of blood vessels

  • That’s enough to circle the globe 2.5 times!


Blood Vessels

  • 3 types

    • Arteries: carry blood away from heart

    • Veins: carry blood back to the heart

    • Capillaries:exchange nutrients & wastes with cells (through diffusion)

      • smallest blood vessels w/very thin walls


Blood Vessels

  • Road map of the body

  • Arteries/veins = highways

  • Capillaries = side streets


Blood Vessels

Layers of tissue

  • Connective tissue (outside)

  • Smooth muscle

  • Endothelium


What causes a heart attack?

  • Fat (plaque) builds up in arteries

  • If plaque ruptures, blood clot blocks blood flow through artery


What causes a heart attack?

  • Heart muscle begins to die from lack of oxygen/nutrients


Signs of a heart attack:

  • Chest discomfort or pain

  • Upper body discomfort (arms, back, neck, jaw)

  • Shortness of breath

  • Nausea, fainting, cold sweat

  • Call 911 within 5 minutes


Blood Vessels

  • Blood pressure: force of blood on artery walls

    • Needed for blood to flow through body


Blood

The Bloodmobile


Blood

  • Functions:

    • Collects O2 from lungs, nutrients from intestines, waste from tissues

    • Regulates body conditions (ex: T° and pH)

    • Fights infections

    • Repairs damage (blood clots)


Plasma (55%)

Cells (45%)

Blood


Plasma (55%)

90% water

10% dissolved substances (gases, salts, nutrients, enzymes, hormones, waste products, proteins)

Cells (45%)

Red – transport O2

White – fight off bacteria and parasites

Blood


Blood

Red blood cells (RBCs) a.k.a. erythrocytes

  • Transport oxygen throughout body

  • Contain hemoglobin = iron-rich protein that binds to O2 and CO2

    White blood cells (WBCs) a.k.a. leukocytes

  • Defend against bacteria, viruses, parasites, tumor cells


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