Objective 5 motion forces and energy
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 100

Objective 5 Motion, Forces, and Energy PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 63 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Objective 5 Motion, Forces, and Energy. IPC 4A – Calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines. Common measurements and symbols. Using the formula chart. 1. Circle what you are asked to find

Download Presentation

Objective 5 Motion, Forces, and Energy

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Objective 5Motion, Forces, and Energy


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

IPC 4A – Calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, work, and power in systems such as in the human body, moving toys, and machines.


Common measurements and symbols

Common measurements and symbols


Using the formula chart

Using the formula chart

1. Circle what you are asked to find

2. Underline given facts with numbers and units and write the symbol above it.

3. Identify the formula(s) you will use from the formula chart

4. Rearrange the formula for what you’re asked to find.

5. Put in numbers for symbols and solve.

6. Check that you answered the question asked.


Rearranging formulas

Rearranging formulas

When a formula is not solved for the variable you are trying to find, then you need to rearrange it until your variable is alone on one side of the equation.


Rearranging formulas1

d

v

t

Rearranging formulas

Example, the speed formula is:

If you are given speed and time and want to find distance, what would the formula be?


Rearranging formulas2

d

v

t

d

t

t

x

v

x

d

v

x

t

t

Rearranging formulas

Here, you divided d by t. To move t to the other side, do the opposite, multiply by it.

t cancels on the right side

And you are left with the formula for d.


Speed and velocity

Speed and Velocity

How fast an object is traveling.

Velocity has direction, speed does not.


Acceleration

Acceleration

The change in velocity

If an object is moving at a constant speed, acceleration = 0

Negative acceleration (deceleration) means the object is slowing down.


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Work

Using force to move an object a certain distance.

If there is no movement, there is no work done. If distance = 0, work = 0

Does not depend on the time it takes to do the work


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

If Distance = 0,

then

Work = 0.


Power

Power

The rate at which work is done.

More power means the same work can be done faster.


How could this person increase his power

How could this person increase his power?


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

What is the power of this motor?

Power = Work/time

Time = 5 s

We must find the work first!

Work = Force x distance

= 10 N x 2m = 20 J

Power = Work/time

= 20J/5s

=4 Watts


Momentum

Momentum

The product of an object’s mass and velocity.

Can be thought of as how difficult it is to stop a moving object.

A stopped object has zero momentum.


Conservation of momentum

Conservation of Momentum

In collisions, total momentum does not change. The momentum of the objects (together) before the collision is the same as the momentum of the objects (together) after the collision.


Distance vs time graphs

Distance vs. Time graphs

  • In a distance vs. time graph, the slope of the line is the speed of the object.

  • If you have a horizontal line, the object is stopped.


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

No speed = stopped


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Constant speed away from a point

Constant speed toward a point


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

The line gets less steep – slowing down

The line gets steeper – speeding up


Velocity vs time graphs

Velocity vs. Time Graphs

  • In a velocity vs. time graph, the slope of the line is the acceleration of the object.

  • In this type of graph, a horizontal line means that the object is moving at a constant speed.


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Two ice hockey players are skating directly at each other. The first has a mass of 87 kg and is skating at a constant speed of 2.6 m/s. The second skater has a mass of 78 kg. How fast must the second skater be skating in order to have a momentum similar to the first skater?

A 2.3 m/s

B 2.9 m/s

C 3.4 m/s

D 5.2 m/s


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

How much force is needed to accelerate a 1,300 kg car at a rate of 1.5 m/s2?

F 867 N

G 1,950 N

H 8,493 N

J 16,562 N


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

An ant crawled from Point A to Point B in 4.0 seconds. To the nearest tenth, what was the ant’s speed in centimeters per second?

Assume the ant traveled 5.6 cm.

1.4 cm/s


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

The diagram represents the total travel of a teacher on a Saturday. Which part of the trip is made at the greatest average speed?

F Q

G R

H S

J T


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

A car traveled 150 km in 2.5 hours. What was its average speed in km per hour? Record and bubble in your answer on the answer document.

60 km/h


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Which bike rider has the greatest momentum?

A A 40 kg person riding at 45 km/h

B A 50 kg person riding at 35 km/h

C A 60 kg person riding at 25 km/h

D A 70 kg person riding at 15 km/h


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

IPC 4B – Investigate and describe [applications of] Newton’s laws such as in vehicle restraints, sports activities, geological processes, and satellite orbits.


Forces

Forces

  • Force can be defined as a push or a pull.

  • Forces can be balanced, which mean they are equal and opposite with no change in direction. If the forces on an object are balanced, it will either remain at rest or it will move at a constant speed in a straight line.


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Unbalanced forces cause an object to accelerate (speed up, slow down or change direction) in the direction of the largest force.


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Friction is a force that acts in the opposite direction to the motion of a moving object.


Newton s laws

Newton’s Laws

Newton’s First Law: An object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.

  • The Law of Inertia.


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Orbits and Inertia


Newton s second law

Newton’s Second Law:

  • Force = mass x acceleration

  • For a constant force, if mass increases acceleration decreases

  • For a constant mass, if force increases, acceleration increases


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

The force on the ball and the force on the cannon are equal (See 3rd Law).

F = ma

The ball’s mass is lower, so its acceleration is higher.

The cannon’s mass is greater, so its acceleration is lower.


Newton s third law for every action force there is an equal and opposite reaction force

Newton’s Third Law: For every action force, there is an equal and opposite reaction force.


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

In the event of an accident, air bags and seat belts may help reduce injury to a passenger by decreasing the force that stops the passenger’s motion. The force is reduced because the seat belts or air bags decrease the —

A mass of the passenger

B acceleration of the passenger

C reaction time of the driver

D speed of the vehicle


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

The illustration above shows a student about to throw a ball while standing on a skateboard. Which illustration below correctly shows the skateboard’s direction of motion after the student releases the ball?


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

The table shows times required for the same toy car to travel 10 m across an identical section of a floor after it is pushed. The difference in times was probably caused by differences in —

A force exerted

B surface friction

C air resistance

D car mass


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

IPC 5A – Demonstrate wave types and their characteristics through a variety of activities such as modeling with ropes and coils, activating tuning forks, and interpreting data on seismic waves.


2 longitudinal compression

Types of Waves

1. Transverse

2. Longitudinal (compression)


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Parts of a Wave


Calculating wave speed

Calculating Wave Speed

Velocity of a wave = Wavelength • Frequency

Measured in Hz


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

A surfer wishing to ride a big wave is most

interested in a wave’s —

A rarefaction

B compression

C amplitude

D wavelength


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

At 0°C sound travels through air at a speed of 330 m/s. If a sound wave is produced with a wavelength of 0.10 m, what is the wave’s frequency?

F 0.0033 Hz

G 33 Hz

H 330 Hz

J 3300 Hz


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Which illustration best demonstrates compression waves?


Ipc 6a describe the law of conservation of energy

IPC 6A – Describe the law of conservation of energy.


Energy

Energy

  • energy- the ability to do work

  • unit: joule (J)


Types of energy

Types of Energy:

  • kinetic energy- the energy of motion

    • the faster an object moves, the more kinetic energy it has

    • depends on both mass & velocity

    • KE = ½ (mv2)

  • potential energy- energy of position

    • stored energy that the object was given when work was done on it – a ball rolled to the top of a hill

    • it has the ability to give that work back—a stretched rubber band

    • GPE is potential energy due to gravity. GPE = mgh (remember g = 9.8m/s2)


Law of conservation of energy

law of conservation of energy-

  • energy may neither be created nor destroyed

    • it can only be transformed into various forms—from kinetic to potential, from chemical to mechanical

    • the total energy in the system is constant


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

maximum potential

maximum potential

maximum kinetic


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Where is the PE greatest?Where is the PE least?Where is the KE greatest?Where is the roller coaster moving the fastest?


Energy conversions

Energy conversions


Types of energy1

Types of Energy

mechanical energy- energy of motion—hitting a ball, walking, blood flowing through your vessels

heat energy- internal motion of atoms; usually results from friction—causes phase & temperature changes

chemical energy- energy that exists in the bonds that hold atoms together—starting a fire, burning fuel, digesting food

nuclear energy- energy associated with the nucleus of an atom; produces the sun’s energy due to nuclear fusion--hydrogen changes to helium

electromagnetic energy- energy associated with moving charges—microwaves, X-rays


Energy conversions1

Energy conversions


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Powerful Plankton

The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory has created an experimental marine fuel cell that could produce enough electricity to power ocean-monitoring devices. This fuel cell runs on seawater and sediment, with the help of plankton. Some plankton on the surface of ocean sediments use dissolved oxygen to break down organic matter, releasing energy; this is an aerobic process. The plankton in the deeper sediments break down organic matter without using oxygen; this is an anaerobic process. These two processes create a difference in voltage between the surface of the sediment and the sediment farther down in the seabed. The voltage difference can be used to produce electricity-up to 5.0 x 10–2 watts of power. Energy supplied by this type of fuel cell can be obtained as long as there is organic matter in the sediment. Fuel cells powered by plankton from the seabed can be used to operate instruments that monitor ocean currents and water temperature. These fuel cells get their energy by converting —

F chemical energy to electrical energy

G electrical energy to mechanical energy

H hydroelectric energy to geothermal energy

J mechanical energy to chemical energy


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

IPC 6B – Investigate and demonstrate the movement of heat through solids, liquids, and gases by convection, conduction and radiation.


Kinetic theory

Kinetic theory

  • all matter is made up of atoms & molecules that act like tiny particles

  • these tiny particles are always in motion; the higher the temperature, the faster the particles move

  • at the same temperature, more massive (heavier) particles move slower than less massive (lighter) particles


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

  • heat- a form of energy caused by the internal motion of molecules

  • cold- the absence of heat

  • heat transfer- the movement of heat from a warmer object to a cooler one


3 methods of heat transfer

3 methods of heat transfer

1. conduction- heat is transferred through a substance, or by the direct contact of molecules

  • takes place in solids, liquids, & gases, but does best in solids

  • one particle must contact another for this to occur. In solids, the particles are close to each other, which makes contact easier.


Conductors vs insulators

Conductors vs. Insulators

conductors- substances that conduct heat better & more rapidly than others (silver, copper, iron)

insulators- substances that do not conduct heat easily (glass, plastic, wood, rubber)—wearing several layers of clothing in extremely cold weather


3 methods of heat transfer1

3 Methods of Heat Transfer

2. convection- takes place in liquids & gases as up-and-down movements called convection currents.

  • Does not occur in solids


3 methods of heat transfer2

3 Methods of Heat Transfer

3. radiation- heat energy transfer through empty space

  • This is how the sun heats the earth


Which method is shown

Which method is shown?


Which method is shown1

Which method is shown?


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Mud at the bottom of a fishpond has a temperature of 15°C. After a week of colder air

temperatures, the mud temperature drops to 12°C. Which of the following methods of heat transfer is most responsible for the change in the mud temperature?

A Water convection

B Air conduction

C Water reflection

D Ground radiation


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

The primary way liquids and gases transmit heat is by the process of —

A reflection

B conduction

C radiation

D convection


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

A man who was sleeping wakes up because he hears the smoke alarm go off in his house. Before opening the bedroom door, the man feels the door to see whether it is warm. He is assuming that heat would be transferred through the door by —

A conduction

B convection

C radiation

D compression


Ipc 6f investigate and compare series and parallel circuits

IPC 6F – Investigate and compare series and parallel circuits.


Electric circuits

Electric Circuits

IPC 6F – Investigate and compare series and parallel circuits. (10th grade only)


Circuits

Circuits

To have an electric circuit, you need:

  • a closed conducting path which extends from the positive terminal to the negative terminal.

  • An energy source, such as a battery.


Will the bulb light

Will the bulb light?


Will the bulb light1

Will the bulb light?

Closed loop!


Series circuit

Series circuit

  • each device is connected in a manner such that there is only one pathway by which charge can traverse the external circuit.

What happens if the first light bulb burns out?


Parallel circuits

Parallel Circuits

  • In a parallel circuit, each device is placed in its own separate branch. The presence of branch lines means that there are multiple pathways by which charge can flow through the external circuit.

What happens if the first light bulb burns out?


Circuits math

Circuits Math

Voltage (Volts)

Current (Amps)

Resistance (Ώ)


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Which switch, if opened, will cause the lightbulb to stop glowing?

F Q

G R

H S

J T


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

What is the current in a copper wire that has a resistance of 2 ohms and is connected to a 9-volt electrical source?

F 0.22 amp

G 4.5 amps

H 11.0 amps

J 18.0 amps


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

How much current is flowing through this circuit?

A 0.32 A

B 3.1 A

C 4.0 A

D 12.5 A


Objective 5 motion forces and energy

Which circuit is built so that if one lightbulb goes out, the other three lightbulbs will continue to glow?


  • Login