Quick study review of for week 24 dca
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Quick study review of for week 24 DCA. Evidence of evolution. Comparative Anatomy- how do structures of different organisms show that they have common ancestor Homologous structures- similar structures from common ancestor

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Quick study review of for week 24 DCA

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Quick study review of for week 24 dca

Quick study review of for week 24 DCA


Evidence of evolution

Evidence of evolution

  • Comparative Anatomy- how do structures of different organisms show that they have common ancestor

    • Homologous structures- similar structures from common ancestor

    • Analogous structures- similar function and structure but from different ancestor (no related).

Q1) According to the diagram: which organism is cat most closely related to?


Evidence of evolution1

Evidence of Evolution

  • Embryology- study of embryo development in different species to show common ancestry


Evidence of evolution2

Evidence of Evolution

  • Molecular Biology: Using DNA sequence to determine the relativeness of species to show common ancestry.

  • Remember: DNARNAProteins

    - The more similar the DNA are between 2 species, the more related they are.


Evidence of evolution3

Evidence of Evolution

  • Cladogram- branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species. (wiki)

Q1) According to the diagram, who is the oldest organism?

Q2)What do trait(s) Mouse and chip share in common?


Evidence of evolution4

Evidence of Evolution

  • Fossil records- a system of relative dating showing the relative (estimated) age of the fossils depending on the layer of rocks they were found.

  • Remember the layers at the

    bottom is older than the ones

    on the top.


Geological timeline

Geological Timeline

  • Shows the geological history of Earth and the evolution (rises and change) of the living and non-living organisms.

Q1) According to the timescale: what was the first living organism?

Q2)Where do we find the oldest dates on the top or bottom of the time scale?


Natural selection

Natural Selection

  • Natural selection is how the forces/ criteria from the environment selecting a specific trait with in a population.

  • This can lead to adaptation- meaning that the best fitted trait for that environment continues to live and reproduce.

  • Remember there is already a variety existing within the population to begin with!

  • Conditions of natural selection:

    • Over population

    • Competition for resource (food, mate, space)

    • The fittest (not always the strongest) will survive.

    • Variation should already exist within the population


Speciation formation of new species

Speciation-formation of new species

  • There are few mechanisms of how speciation occurs due to reproductive isolation (unable to mate and reproduce) between species.

  • Types of reproductive isolation:

  • Temporal isolation- different mating seasons

  • ***Geographical isolation- separated by geographical location (river, mountain, island)

  • Hybrid break down- the baby that is hybrid can’t have baby (sterile)

  • ***Behavioral isolation- different ways to mating rituals (i.e. dancing rituals, different bird songs, etc…)


Taxonomy kingdoms

Taxonomy- kingdoms

  • Be able to identify the characteristics of different kingdoms.

  • Pay close attention of differences and similarities between Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.

  • They are both prokaryote- no nucleus or membrane bound organelles.

  • Eubacteria are found in daily- common surroundings.

  • Archaebacteria are found in extreme environment (hot springs, salty environments)


Taxonomy dichotomous key

Taxonomy- Dichotomous key

  • Be able to use dichotomous key to identify the name of the unknown organism.

  • *Remember to always start off with the first question and then depending on what the characteristic the organism do/do not have you go to the next question.


According to the diagram what is organism number 5

According to the diagram what is organism number 5?


Ecological succession

Ecological succession

  • Change in a ecosystem over time


Primary succession

Primary succession

  • Started out with bare rock no soil, longer


Secondary succession

Secondary succession

  • Occurs after a disaster/disturbance, have soil, faster


Pioneer species

Pioneer species

  • First to start the succession create soil

    Lichen, moss, algae etc…


Climax community

Climax community

  • Final stage of succession where everything is stable


Food chain food web

Food Chain/ Food web

Flow of energy and matter


What is the main source of energy w in an ecosystem

What is the main source of Energy w/in an Ecosystem?

The SUN!

It provides Energy for the plants so that they can undergo photosynthesis and grow and then animals eat them.


Aut trophs

Aut trophs

“Auto” = self

“troph” = food

They are PRODUCERS!

Organisms that use

Energy from the

environment to make

their own food!

(e.g.; plants and some bacteria)


Heterotroph

Heterotroph

“Hetero” = other

“troph” = food

They are CONSUMERS!

Organisms that eat

Other organisms to

Obtain Energy.

(e.g.; mushrooms, leopards, humans, & sharks)


Herbivores

Herbivores

Animals that eat ONLY plants, fruits, and “herbs”

(e.g.; Fruit Bats, Moose, Elephants, Rabbits, Deer, Cows)


Omnivores

Omnivores

Animals that eat both autotrophs & heterotrophs (plants and animals)

(e.g.; bears, most humans, pigs,

dogs, monkeys, ducks & crows)


Carnivores

Carnivores

Animals that eat other heterotrophs (animals)… Meat Eaters ONLY!

(e.g.; Komodo Dragons, Lions, Tigers, Snakes & Octopus)


Predator vs prey

Predator vs. Prey

Predator

Captures and feeds

Prey

Is eaten or fed on


Decomposers

Decomposers

Breaks down organic matter and recycles it back into the earth (this makes them the ultimate top level consumer)

(e.g.; fungi/ mushrooms, and bacteria)

Decomposers


Detritivores

Detritivores

Scavengers; Feed on DEAD decaying organisms

(e.g.; mites, flies, earthworms, snails, crabs, rats & vultures)

Detritivores


Food chain

Food Chain

Shows how Energy is transferred “thru” an Ecosystem

Sun  Autotrophs  Heterotrophs

Shows a linear feeding relationship for 1 particular organism(“Who eats who”)

Arrows ALWAYS Point to the 1 who is Enjoying the Meal

Some People


Food chain practice circle the appropriate organism then answer questions

Food Chain-Practice(circle the appropriate organism then answer questions)

  • A

  • B

  • In diagram A who is the producer?

  • In diagram B who is the tertiary consumer?

  • How many trophic level is in diagram B?

  • What is the ultimate (original) source of energy?


Food web

Food Web

Shows a NETWORK of interconnected feeding relationships within an ecosystem

Food Webs are ALL of the Food Chains w/in an Ecosystem linked together

(“Who eats who” and “whose being eaten”)


Trophic levels

Trophic Levels

Each step in a food chain or food web

PRODUCERS REPRESENTS THE 1ST LEVEL

CONSUMERS MAKE UP THE 2ND, 3RD, OR HIGHER LEVELS

Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy


Trophic levels w in a food web

Trophic Levels w/in A Food Web

Producers

Always start a food

chain or a food web;

plants or bacteria

Primary Consumers

eat the producers;

herbivores


Trophic levels w in a food web1

Trophic Levels w/in A Food Web

Secondary Consumers

Eat the producers and

the primary consumers;

omnivores

Tertiary Consumers

Eat the secondary and

primary consumers;

carnivores = the top

Predator


Biomass pyramids

Biomass Pyramids

Biomass

total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level

The Pyramid represents the potential food available for each trophic level.


Pyramids of numbers

Pyramids of Numbers

Based on the # of organisms at each trophic level.

There should always be more producers represented than there are consumers

http://www.vtaide.com/png/foodchains-mcq.htm


Energy pyramids the rule of 10

Energy Pyramids/ The Rule of 10

Only about 10% of the ENERGY available w/in 1 Trophic Level is transferred to organisms at the trophic level above it

The rest of the Energy is released in some form of heat

(e.g.; when you eat a chicken wing you are only going to absorb 10% of it’s energy)


Quick study review of for week 24 dca

Usable energy available

at each trophic level

(in kilocalories)

Heat

Tertiary

consumers

(human)

10

Heat

Secondary

consumers

(perch)

100

Heat

Decomposers

Heat

Primary

consumers

(zooplankton)

1,000

Heat

10,000

Producers

(phytoplankton)

Fig. 3-15, p. 63


Symbiosis

Symbiosis

  • Relationship between two organisms that live CLOSELY together


Mutualism

Mutualism

  • Both organisms benefit; +/+

    Sea anemone and clown fish


Commensalism

Commensalism

  • One benefit where other is unaffected; +/0

    Cow and egret (bird)


Parasitism

Parasitism

  • One benefit while the other is harmed

  • Host and parasite (Dog and Tick)


Predator and prey

Predator and prey

  • Predator- hunts for food

  • Prey-the organism being hunted


Biogeochemical cycles 3 3

http://www.animationlibrary.com/search/?keywords=recycle

BIOGEOCHEMICALCYCLES3-3


Energy matter

http://mff.dsisd.net/Environment/Cycles.htm

ENERGY & MATTER

Energy is not the only thing

that moves through the ecosystem.

Atoms are never destroyed . . . only transformed.

Take a deep breath.

The atoms you just inhaled may have been inhaled by a dinosaur millions of years ago.

http://educ.queensu.ca/~fmc/august2004/pages/dinobreath.html


4 atoms make up 95 of the body in most organisms

4 ATOMS make up 95% of the body in most organisms

OXYGEN

CARBON

HYDROGEN

NITROGEN

The same molecules are passed around

again and again within the biosphere in

___________________________

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES


Carbon cycle

CARBON CYCLE

CO2 in

atmosphere

CO2 in

ocean

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


4 main carbon reservoirs in biosphere

4 main CARBON reservoirs in BIOSPHERE

atmosphere

  • In ____________ as CO2 gas

  • In _______ as dissolved CO2 gas

  • On _______ in organisms, rocks, soil

  • __________ as coal & petroleum (fossil fuels) and calcium carbonate in rocks

ocean

land

Underground

CO2 in

atmosphere

CO2 in

Ocean

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Where does co 2 in atmosphere come from

Where does CO2 in atmosphere come from?

CO2 in

atmosphere

CO2 in

Ocean

Volcanic activity

  • ________________

  • ______________

  • _________________

  • ____________ of dead organisms

Human activity (burning fossil fuels)

Cellular respiration

Decomposition

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Why is carbon important

WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT?

BUILDING BLOCKS

Found in all the _______________ of cells: carbohydrates, proteins,

nucleic acids, lipids

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


Why is carbon important1

WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT?

Carbon in CO2 provides the atoms for

__________ production during __________________...

the fuel that all living things depend on.

GLUCOSE

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0076.JPG

http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpg


Quick study review of for week 24 dca

NITROGEN CYCLE

Section 3-3

N2 in Atmosphere

NO3-

and NO2-

NH3

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Why is nitrogen important

WHY IS NITROGEN IMPORTANT?

NITROGEN BASES

__________________make DNA and RNA

ATP

Adenine (nitrogen base) is used in _______

amino acids

Makes AMINO part of _________ (proteins)

Image by Riedell

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


79 of the atmosphere is made up of nitrogen gas n 2

79% of the atmosphere is made up of NITROGEN gas (N2)

BUT we _____ use the nitrogen gas

we breathe!

The bond in N2 gas is so

strong it can only be broken by

_______________

_______________

____________________

CAN’T

lightning

Volcanic activity

few special bacteria

Image by Riedell

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


Quick study review of for week 24 dca

Bacteria that live ______________

and in _________ relationships with

plants called _________, take

nitrogen from the atmosphere and

turn it into ______________, a form

that is usable by plants.

THIS PROCESS

IS CALLED_________________

in the soil

symbiotic

legumes

AMMONIA (NH3)

NITROGEN FIXATION

http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/images/101nodules21.gif


Quick study review of for week 24 dca

Other bacteria in the soil convert

ammonia into ________________

& _________________

which plants can also use.

The nitrogen we need for proteins,

ATP, and nucleic acids comes from

the ___________

___________

we breathe!

NITRATES (NO3- )

& NITRITES (NO2-)

FOOD WE EAT

NOT THE AIR

Image from: http://www.utdallas.edu/images/departments/biology/misc/gonzalez-image.jpg and http://www.cibike.org/CartoonEating.gif

modified by Riedell


Quick study review of for week 24 dca

NITROGEN CYCLE

Section 3-3

N2 in Atmosphere

NO3-

and NO2-

NH3

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Quick study review of for week 24 dca

Bacteria that live ______________

also carry out the reverse process

___________ → _____________.

THIS PROCESS

IS CALLED_________________

in the soil

NITRATES

& NITRITES

NITROGEN GAS

DENITRIFICATION


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