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Quick study review of for week 24 DCA. Evidence of evolution. Comparative Anatomy- how do structures of different organisms show that they have common ancestor Homologous structures- similar structures from common ancestor

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Evidence of evolution
Evidence of evolution

  • Comparative Anatomy- how do structures of different organisms show that they have common ancestor

    • Homologous structures- similar structures from common ancestor

    • Analogous structures- similar function and structure but from different ancestor (no related).

Q1) According to the diagram: which organism is cat most closely related to?


Evidence of evolution1
Evidence of Evolution

  • Embryology- study of embryo development in different species to show common ancestry


Evidence of evolution2
Evidence of Evolution

  • Molecular Biology: Using DNA sequence to determine the relativeness of species to show common ancestry.

  • Remember: DNARNAProteins

    - The more similar the DNA are between 2 species, the more related they are.


Evidence of evolution3
Evidence of Evolution

  • Cladogram- branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species. (wiki)

Q1) According to the diagram, who is the oldest organism?

Q2)What do trait(s) Mouse and chip share in common?


Evidence of evolution4
Evidence of Evolution

  • Fossil records- a system of relative dating showing the relative (estimated) age of the fossils depending on the layer of rocks they were found.

  • Remember the layers at the

    bottom is older than the ones

    on the top.


Geological timeline
Geological Timeline

  • Shows the geological history of Earth and the evolution (rises and change) of the living and non-living organisms.

Q1) According to the timescale: what was the first living organism?

Q2)Where do we find the oldest dates on the top or bottom of the time scale?


Natural selection
Natural Selection

  • Natural selection is how the forces/ criteria from the environment selecting a specific trait with in a population.

  • This can lead to adaptation- meaning that the best fitted trait for that environment continues to live and reproduce.

  • Remember there is already a variety existing within the population to begin with!

  • Conditions of natural selection:

    • Over population

    • Competition for resource (food, mate, space)

    • The fittest (not always the strongest) will survive.

    • Variation should already exist within the population


Speciation formation of new species
Speciation-formation of new species

  • There are few mechanisms of how speciation occurs due to reproductive isolation (unable to mate and reproduce) between species.

  • Types of reproductive isolation:

  • Temporal isolation- different mating seasons

  • ***Geographical isolation- separated by geographical location (river, mountain, island)

  • Hybrid break down- the baby that is hybrid can’t have baby (sterile)

  • ***Behavioral isolation- different ways to mating rituals (i.e. dancing rituals, different bird songs, etc…)


Taxonomy kingdoms
Taxonomy- kingdoms

  • Be able to identify the characteristics of different kingdoms.

  • Pay close attention of differences and similarities between Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.

  • They are both prokaryote- no nucleus or membrane bound organelles.

  • Eubacteria are found in daily- common surroundings.

  • Archaebacteria are found in extreme environment (hot springs, salty environments)


Taxonomy dichotomous key
Taxonomy- Dichotomous key

  • Be able to use dichotomous key to identify the name of the unknown organism.

  • *Remember to always start off with the first question and then depending on what the characteristic the organism do/do not have you go to the next question.



Ecological succession
Ecological succession

  • Change in a ecosystem over time


Primary succession
Primary succession

  • Started out with bare rock no soil, longer


Secondary succession
Secondary succession

  • Occurs after a disaster/disturbance, have soil, faster


Pioneer species
Pioneer species

  • First to start the succession create soil

    Lichen, moss, algae etc…


Climax community
Climax community

  • Final stage of succession where everything is stable


Food chain food web

Food Chain/ Food web

Flow of energy and matter


What is the main source of energy w in an ecosystem
What is the main source of Energy w/in an Ecosystem?

The SUN!

It provides Energy for the plants so that they can undergo photosynthesis and grow and then animals eat them.


Aut trophs
Aut trophs

“Auto” = self

“troph” = food

They are PRODUCERS!

Organisms that use

Energy from the

environment to make

their own food!

(e.g.; plants and some bacteria)


Heterotroph
Heterotroph

“Hetero” = other

“troph” = food

They are CONSUMERS!

Organisms that eat

Other organisms to

Obtain Energy.

(e.g.; mushrooms, leopards, humans, & sharks)


Herbivores
Herbivores

Animals that eat ONLY plants, fruits, and “herbs”

(e.g.; Fruit Bats, Moose, Elephants, Rabbits, Deer, Cows)


Omnivores
Omnivores

Animals that eat both autotrophs & heterotrophs (plants and animals)

(e.g.; bears, most humans, pigs,

dogs, monkeys, ducks & crows)


Carnivores
Carnivores

Animals that eat other heterotrophs (animals)… Meat Eaters ONLY!

(e.g.; Komodo Dragons, Lions, Tigers, Snakes & Octopus)


Predator vs prey
Predator vs. Prey

Predator

Captures and feeds

Prey

Is eaten or fed on


Decomposers
Decomposers

Breaks down organic matter and recycles it back into the earth (this makes them the ultimate top level consumer)

(e.g.; fungi/ mushrooms, and bacteria)

Decomposers


Detritivores
Detritivores

Scavengers; Feed on DEAD decaying organisms

(e.g.; mites, flies, earthworms, snails, crabs, rats & vultures)

Detritivores


Food chain
Food Chain

Shows how Energy is transferred “thru” an Ecosystem

Sun  Autotrophs  Heterotrophs

Shows a linear feeding relationship for 1 particular organism(“Who eats who”)

Arrows ALWAYS Point to the 1 who is Enjoying the Meal

Some People


Food chain practice circle the appropriate organism then answer questions
Food Chain-Practice(circle the appropriate organism then answer questions)

  • A

  • B

  • In diagram A who is the producer?

  • In diagram B who is the tertiary consumer?

  • How many trophic level is in diagram B?

  • What is the ultimate (original) source of energy?


Food web
Food Web

Shows a NETWORK of interconnected feeding relationships within an ecosystem

Food Webs are ALL of the Food Chains w/in an Ecosystem linked together

(“Who eats who” and “whose being eaten”)


Trophic levels
Trophic Levels

Each step in a food chain or food web

PRODUCERS REPRESENTS THE 1ST LEVEL

CONSUMERS MAKE UP THE 2ND, 3RD, OR HIGHER LEVELS

Each consumer depends on the trophic level below it for energy


Trophic levels w in a food web
Trophic Levels w/in A Food Web

Producers

Always start a food

chain or a food web;

plants or bacteria

Primary Consumers

eat the producers;

herbivores


Trophic levels w in a food web1
Trophic Levels w/in A Food Web

Secondary Consumers

Eat the producers and

the primary consumers;

omnivores

Tertiary Consumers

Eat the secondary and

primary consumers;

carnivores = the top

Predator


Biomass pyramids
Biomass Pyramids

Biomass

total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level

The Pyramid represents the potential food available for each trophic level.


Pyramids of numbers
Pyramids of Numbers

Based on the # of organisms at each trophic level.

There should always be more producers represented than there are consumers

http://www.vtaide.com/png/foodchains-mcq.htm


Energy pyramids the rule of 10
Energy Pyramids/ The Rule of 10

Only about 10% of the ENERGY available w/in 1 Trophic Level is transferred to organisms at the trophic level above it

The rest of the Energy is released in some form of heat

(e.g.; when you eat a chicken wing you are only going to absorb 10% of it’s energy)


Usable energy available

at each trophic level

(in kilocalories)

Heat

Tertiary

consumers

(human)

10

Heat

Secondary

consumers

(perch)

100

Heat

Decomposers

Heat

Primary

consumers

(zooplankton)

1,000

Heat

10,000

Producers

(phytoplankton)

Fig. 3-15, p. 63


Symbiosis
Symbiosis

  • Relationship between two organisms that live CLOSELY together


Mutualism
Mutualism

  • Both organisms benefit; +/+

    Sea anemone and clown fish


Commensalism
Commensalism

  • One benefit where other is unaffected; +/0

    Cow and egret (bird)


Parasitism
Parasitism

  • One benefit while the other is harmed

  • Host and parasite (Dog and Tick)


Predator and prey
Predator and prey

  • Predator- hunts for food

  • Prey-the organism being hunted



Energy matter

http://mff.dsisd.net/Environment/Cycles.htm

ENERGY & MATTER

Energy is not the only thing

that moves through the ecosystem.

Atoms are never destroyed . . . only transformed.

Take a deep breath.

The atoms you just inhaled may have been inhaled by a dinosaur millions of years ago.

http://educ.queensu.ca/~fmc/august2004/pages/dinobreath.html


4 atoms make up 95 of the body in most organisms
4 ATOMS make up 95% of the body in most organisms

OXYGEN

CARBON

HYDROGEN

NITROGEN

The same molecules are passed around

again and again within the biosphere in

___________________________

BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES


Carbon cycle
CARBON CYCLE

CO2 in

atmosphere

CO2 in

ocean

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


4 main carbon reservoirs in biosphere
4 main CARBON reservoirs in BIOSPHERE

atmosphere

  • In ____________ as CO2 gas

  • In _______ as dissolved CO2 gas

  • On _______ in organisms, rocks, soil

  • __________ as coal & petroleum (fossil fuels) and calcium carbonate in rocks

ocean

land

Underground

CO2 in

atmosphere

CO2 in

Ocean

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Where does co 2 in atmosphere come from
Where does CO2 in atmosphere come from?

CO2 in

atmosphere

CO2 in

Ocean

Volcanic activity

  • ________________

  • ______________

  • _________________

  • ____________ of dead organisms

Human activity (burning fossil fuels)

Cellular respiration

Decomposition

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Why is carbon important
WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT?

BUILDING BLOCKS

Found in all the _______________ of cells: carbohydrates, proteins,

nucleic acids, lipids

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


Why is carbon important1
WHY IS CARBON IMPORTANT?

Carbon in CO2 provides the atoms for

__________ production during __________________...

the fuel that all living things depend on.

GLUCOSE

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

http://www.science.siu.edu/plant-biology/PLB117/JPEGs%20CD/0076.JPG

http://www.biologyclass.net/mitochondria.jpg


NITROGEN CYCLE

Section 3-3

N2 in Atmosphere

NO3-

and NO2-

NH3

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Why is nitrogen important
WHY IS NITROGEN IMPORTANT?

NITROGEN BASES

__________________make DNA and RNA

ATP

Adenine (nitrogen base) is used in _______

amino acids

Makes AMINO part of _________ (proteins)

Image by Riedell

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


79 of the atmosphere is made up of nitrogen gas n 2
79% of the atmosphere is made up of NITROGEN gas (N2)

BUT we _____ use the nitrogen gas

we breathe!

The bond in N2 gas is so

strong it can only be broken by

_______________

_______________

____________________

CAN’T

lightning

Volcanic activity

few special bacteria

Image by Riedell

Image by Riedell

http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/12-dna.htm


Bacteria that live ______________

and in _________ relationships with

plants called _________, take

nitrogen from the atmosphere and

turn it into ______________, a form

that is usable by plants.

THIS PROCESS

IS CALLED_________________

in the soil

symbiotic

legumes

AMMONIA (NH3)

NITROGEN FIXATION

http://www.slic2.wsu.edu:82/hurlbert/micro101/images/101nodules21.gif


Other bacteria in the soil convert

ammonia into ________________

& _________________

which plants can also use.

The nitrogen we need for proteins,

ATP, and nucleic acids comes from

the ___________

___________

we breathe!

NITRATES (NO3- )

& NITRITES (NO2-)

FOOD WE EAT

NOT THE AIR

Image from: http://www.utdallas.edu/images/departments/biology/misc/gonzalez-image.jpg and http://www.cibike.org/CartoonEating.gif

modified by Riedell


NITROGEN CYCLE

Section 3-3

N2 in Atmosphere

NO3-

and NO2-

NH3

BIOLOGY; Miller and Levine; Prentice Hall; 2006


Bacteria that live ______________

also carry out the reverse process

___________ → _____________.

THIS PROCESS

IS CALLED_________________

in the soil

NITRATES

& NITRITES

NITROGEN GAS

DENITRIFICATION


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