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ISU Bio economy Initiative. Jill Euken [email protected] Impacts already……. Current Status - Ethanol. Biorefineries in Producion (139) Biorefineries under Construction (62). Source: RFA 1-24-08. Distillation. Fermenter. Ethanol. Starch. CO 2. Enzymes. Water. Cooker.

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ISU Bio economy Initiative

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Isu bio economy initiative

ISUBioeconomy

Initiative

Jill Euken [email protected]


Impacts already

Impacts already……


Current status ethanol

Current Status - Ethanol

Biorefineries in Producion (139)

Biorefineries under Construction (62)

Source: RFA

1-24-08


Typical grain ethanol plant

Distillation

Fermenter

Ethanol

Starch

CO2

Enzymes

Water

Cooker

Milling

Starch

Sugar

Grain

Dried Distillers Grains and Solubles

(DDGs)

Typical Grain Ethanol Plant

Ethanol


Isu bio economy initiative

ISU Extension “Conversations”

96 counties, 950 respondents, March ‘2007


Isu bio economy initiative

Optimism

  • Jobs

  • Livestock expansion

  • Improving infrastructure

  • Iowa pride

  • Increased tax base

  • Economic development

    • Value adding

    • Rural revitalization

  • Potential for keeping young people in Iowa


  • Isu bio economy initiative

    • Concerns

    • Increased land costs, input

    • costs, and risk

    • Water quality and quantity

    • Loss of wetlands and habitat

    • Quality of life issues degraded

    • by industrial growth

    • Strains on physical infrastructure

    • Food versus feed versus fuel

    • More consolidation in farming

    • due to higher land prices

    “Biggest change for agriculture since the plow”


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Facts and Figures

    • December, 2007

    • 7.3 billion gal/year

    • 2.5 billion bu. corn/year

    • In 2008

    • another 6 billion gal/year comes online

    • will require additional 2 billion bu/yr

    • Total corn requirement for U.S. ethanol by

    • end of 2008 will be 4.5 billion bu/year

    • 2008 corn supply may not be sufficient to meet food,

    • export, feed, and ethanol demands; corn prices may

    • rise to the point that ethanol production is reduced

    • by 10-15%*

    Chris Hurt, Purdue University


    Prediction

    Prediction:

    …….we ain’t seen nothin yet…….


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Total

    36

    2007 Energy Bill Mandates36 Billion gallon of ethanol by 202221 Billion gallon must come from cellulose

    Corn-based

    24

    Billion gallons

    12

    Biomass-based

    0

    2000

    2016

    2022

    2008

    Source: U.S. DOE


    The huge challenge before us

    The HUGE Challenge Before Us

    21 billion gallons

    • It took 30 years to reach 6 billion gallons per year of grain-based ethanol fuel (using technology known for millennia)

    • The new biofuels mandate requires production of 21 billion gallons per year of advanced biofuels within 15 years (and no commercial plants currently exist)

    6 billion gallons

    30 years

    15 years


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Where will biomass come from?


    Doe 1 3 billion ton study

    DOE 1.3 Billion Ton Study*

    *Could supply 66% of U.S. transportation fuel


    Isu bio economy initiative

    How do we “jump start” the cellulose industry?


    2007 doe biorefinery awards 385m

    2007 DOE Biorefinery Awards=$385M

    $80 M

    $80 M

    $80 M

    $76 M

    $40 M

    • Feedstocks

    • - corn stover

    • Wheat straw

    • Milo stubble

    • Yard/wood waste

    • landfill waste

    • Barley straw

    • Energycane

    $33 M

    Source: R. Wisner, ISU

    November, 2006


    Isu bio economy initiative

    What is a feasible timeline for this transition?


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Today

    2020

    2012

    2010

    2015

    Corn starch, bran, cobs, stover, and dedicated cellulosic crops

    Corn starch

    and bran

    Corn starch, bran, and cobs

    Corn starch, bran, cobs

    and stover

    Corn starch

    Advanced Corn-to-Biofuel Biorefineries

    Vision

    Source: Larry Johnson, ISU


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Wheat straw

    Corn stover

    6.1%

    Soy

    19.9%

    6.2%

    Crop residues

    7.6%

    Grains

    5.2%

    Manure

    4.1%

    Urban waste

    2.9%

    Perennial crops

    35.2%

    Forest

    12.8%

    US Biomass inventory = 1.3 billion tons*

    *Could supply 66% of U.S. transportation fuel

    From: Billion Ton Vision, DOE & USDA 2005


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Current Sustainable Availability of

    Cellulosic Biomass from Agricultural Lands

    6 mdt/year

    21 mdt/year*

    6 mdt/year

    75 mdt/year

    11 mdt/year

    * Oil seeds, soybeans, sugar crops, root crops

    Source: http://feedstockreview.ornl.gov/pdf/billion_ton_vision.pdf


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Feedstocks Used in Attaining the Goal

    Timing and Feedstocks for 25 X ’25


    Isu bio economy initiative

    How will the biomass be converted into fuels?


    Three approaches to advanced biofuels

    Three approaches to advanced biofuels

    • Biologically (enzyme) based cellulosic ethanol

    • Thermally based biofuels (including ethanol)

    • Hybrid processing (includes both biological and thermal steps)

    Source: R.C. Brown, ISU


    Isu bio economy initiative

    “Next Generation” Biofuels

    • corn bran

    • corn cobs

    • corn stover

    • dedicated energy crops


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Agricultural & Bioenergy/Bioproduct Value Chain

    Germplasm

    Cultivation

    Harvest

    Transport

    Storage

    Processing

    Ceres

    Syngenta

    Monsanto

    Pioneer/DuPont

    Canavialis

    Dow

    Novozymes

    Genencor

    Poet

    ICM

    Iogen

    Verasun

    ConocoPhillips

    Lack of focus on economic & environmental drivers

    Additional research needed

    Integrated Systems Approach

    “If any one step on the value chain does not work, the entire value chain does not work.”

    Source: Jill Euken and Joe Colletti, ISU


    The first advanced biofuels project in iowa project liberty

    The first “Advanced” Biofuels Project in Iowa: Project LIBERTY

    • Converting Emmetsburg, IA plant to an integrated biorefinery

    • Over $300 million capital investment

    • Will produce 125 million gallons of ethanol

      • 25 million from cellulosic feedstock

    • Cellulosic feedstocks are cobs and corn fiber

    • Multiple synergies with corn and cellulose model


    Why cobs

    Why cobs?

    • Consistency

    • Farmer willingness

    • One pass harvest capability

    • Higher ethanol yield

    • Greater bulk density

    • Proven feedstock

    • Logical first step


    Simplified liberty diagram

    CO2

    Simplified LIBERTY Diagram

    Ethanol

    Endosperm

    Centrifuge

    & Dry

    Fractionation

    Fermentation

    Distillation

    Grain Corn

    Water

    VA Chemicals

    and modified

    DDGs

    Corn Germ

    Bran

    Ethanol

    Distill

    Corn Cobs

    Pre-treat

    Hydrolysis &

    Ethanol Fermentation

    Co-product stream

    processed into energy

    for the ethanol

    production processes

    and drying DDGs

    Based on information supplied by POET


    Project liberty delivers

    Project LIBERTY Delivers:

    • 11% more ethanol from a bushel of corn

    • 27% more ethanol from an acre of corn

    • Significant reduction in fossil fuel consumption

    • Replicable model for multiple plants


    Isu visit to hurley sd

    ISU visit to Hurley SD


    Stover cob removal concerns

    Stover/cob removal concerns

    • How to “value”

    • Risk

    • Soil organic matter

    • Moisture infiltration

    • Lime needs

    • Long term soil quality parameters.


    2007 harvest objectives

    2007 Harvest Objectives

    To understand impact to the farmer:

    • economics

    • equipment

    • processes

    • storage

    • transportation

    • capital

    • logistics

    • speed

    • labor


    2007 cob harvest

    2007 Cob Harvest

    • Harvested 4,000 acres of cobs in South Dakota

    • Tested multiple harvest methods

    • Collaborating with major equipment manufacturers

    • Conducting over 60 storage experiments


    Cob caddy ihnen farm

    Cob Caddy, Ihnen farm


    8010 and cob caddy

    8010 and Cob Caddy


    Cob caddy harvest

    Cob Caddy Harvest


    Cob caddy

    Cob Caddy


    On field storage

    On-Field Storage


    Cob handling

    Cob handling


    9860 ccm harvest

    9860 CCM harvest


    Corn cob mix

    Corn cob mix


    Corn cob mix1

    Corn cob mix


    Feterl cob screener

    Feterl cob screener


    Cob storage experiments

    Cob storage experiments

    • 60 experiments

    • Hybrids

    • Moisture

    • Storage/retrieval/

      delivery


    Looking ahead to third generation bioprocessing

    Looking Ahead to “Third Generation” Bioprocessing

    …..harvesting stover……


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Biomass Harvest Logistics


    Harvest equipment

    Harvest equipment


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Iowa State University Research

    N, P, and K Nutrient Replacement Costs:

    N, P, and K Nutrient Replacement costs:

    aAverage for fertilizer N, P, and K at Walton, NE, Kelly, IA and Boone, IA in March 2006.

    Nitrogen cost $0.328 lb-1Phosphate cost $0.615 lb-1

    Potassium cost $0.284 lb-1

    Source: Stuart Birrell, ISU


    New cropping systems could provide biomass feedstocks and environmental protection

    New Cropping Systems Could Provide Biomass Feedstocks and Environmental Protection

    • Using double-crop sequences

    • Using herbaceous and woody perennials

    • Recycling nutrients between biorefineries and crop fields


    Focus on iowa a 2006 corn grower survey

    Focus on Iowa: A 2006 Corn Grower Survey…

    Survey data collected post harvest 2006.

    Corn Price at time of survey ≈ $3.40/ Bushel

    Source: John Tyndall, ISU


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Survey: Regionally Stratified Random Sample

    2

    3

    1

    4

    Map from NASS, 2004


    Farmer knowledge of corn stover market

    Farmer Knowledge of Corn Stover Market

    (n = 602)

    How knowledgeable are farmers about

    harvesting & marketing of corn stover?

    • 41% are “not knowledgeable at all”

    • 28% were “a little knowledgeable”

    • 20% feel “somewhat knowledgeable ”.

    • Only 4% feel “very informed”.

      Interestingly, 6% of the respondents were harvesting & selling corn stover in 2006 (mostly in W and NC Iowa).

      Therefore by and large Iowa’s farmers are still in the learning phase of this potential market.

    Source: John Tyndall, ISU


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Farmers believe that harvesting stover will require:

    • increase in capital investment

    • additional managerial knowledge

    • a well-developed support infrastructure.

    Source: John Tyndall, ISU


    Farmer interest in supplying stover 2006

    (n= 602)

    Farmer Interest in Supplying Stover, 2006

    Source: John Tyndall, ISU


    New century farm at iowa state university

    New Century Farm at Iowa State University

    • The first-in-the-nation integrated research and demonstration farm devoted to biomass production, processing and utilization

    • Will be a model for American biorenewable energy and bioproducts development


    Crop production harvest storage transportation research

    Crop Production, Harvest, Storage & Transportation Research

    Production

    Ensure

    Producer Profitability

    +

    Sustainable Supply

    For Biorefineries

    Harvest

    Storage


    2008 growing the bioeconomy conference september 8 9

    2008 Growing the Bioeconomy ConferenceSeptember 8-9

    SAVE THE DATE


    Isu bio economy initiative

    Jill Euken

    Deputy Director, ISU Bioeconomy Institute

    Project Manager, Biobased Products, ISU Extension/CIRAS

    53020 Hitchcock Ave

    Lewis, IA 51544

    Phone: 712-769-2600

    Email: [email protected]


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