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ISU Bio economy Initiative. Jill Euken [email protected] Impacts already……. Current Status - Ethanol. Biorefineries in Producion (139) Biorefineries under Construction (62). Source: RFA 1-24-08. Distillation. Fermenter. Ethanol. Starch. CO 2. Enzymes. Water. Cooker.

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ISUBioeconomy

Initiative

Jill Euken [email protected]



Current status ethanol
Current Status - Ethanol

Biorefineries in Producion (139)

Biorefineries under Construction (62)

Source: RFA

1-24-08


Typical grain ethanol plant

Distillation

Fermenter

Ethanol

Starch

CO2

Enzymes

Water

Cooker

Milling

Starch

Sugar

Grain

Dried Distillers Grains and Solubles

(DDGs)

Typical Grain Ethanol Plant

Ethanol


ISU Extension “Conversations”

96 counties, 950 respondents, March ‘2007


Optimism

  • Jobs

  • Livestock expansion

  • Improving infrastructure

  • Iowa pride

  • Increased tax base

  • Economic development

    • Value adding

    • Rural revitalization

  • Potential for keeping young people in Iowa


    • Concerns

    • Increased land costs, input

    • costs, and risk

    • Water quality and quantity

    • Loss of wetlands and habitat

    • Quality of life issues degraded

    • by industrial growth

    • Strains on physical infrastructure

    • Food versus feed versus fuel

    • More consolidation in farming

    • due to higher land prices

    “Biggest change for agriculture since the plow”


    Facts and Figures

    • December, 2007

    • 7.3 billion gal/year

    • 2.5 billion bu. corn/year

    • In 2008

    • another 6 billion gal/year comes online

    • will require additional 2 billion bu/yr

    • Total corn requirement for U.S. ethanol by

    • end of 2008 will be 4.5 billion bu/year

    • 2008 corn supply may not be sufficient to meet food,

    • export, feed, and ethanol demands; corn prices may

    • rise to the point that ethanol production is reduced

    • by 10-15%*

    Chris Hurt, Purdue University


    Prediction
    Prediction:

    …….we ain’t seen nothin yet…….


    Total

    36

    2007 Energy Bill Mandates36 Billion gallon of ethanol by 202221 Billion gallon must come from cellulose

    Corn-based

    24

    Billion gallons

    12

    Biomass-based

    0

    2000

    2016

    2022

    2008

    Source: U.S. DOE


    The huge challenge before us
    The HUGE Challenge Before Us

    21 billion gallons

    • It took 30 years to reach 6 billion gallons per year of grain-based ethanol fuel (using technology known for millennia)

    • The new biofuels mandate requires production of 21 billion gallons per year of advanced biofuels within 15 years (and no commercial plants currently exist)

    6 billion gallons

    30 years

    15 years



    Doe 1 3 billion ton study
    DOE 1.3 Billion Ton Study*

    *Could supply 66% of U.S. transportation fuel



    2007 doe biorefinery awards 385m
    2007 DOE Biorefinery Awards=$385M

    $80 M

    $80 M

    $80 M

    $76 M

    $40 M

    • Feedstocks

    • - corn stover

    • Wheat straw

    • Milo stubble

    • Yard/wood waste

    • landfill waste

    • Barley straw

    • Energycane

    $33 M

    Source: R. Wisner, ISU

    November, 2006



    Today

    2020

    2012

    2010

    2015

    Corn starch, bran, cobs, stover, and dedicated cellulosic crops

    Corn starch

    and bran

    Corn starch, bran, and cobs

    Corn starch, bran, cobs

    and stover

    Corn starch

    Advanced Corn-to-Biofuel Biorefineries

    Vision

    Source: Larry Johnson, ISU


    Wheat straw

    Corn stover

    6.1%

    Soy

    19.9%

    6.2%

    Crop residues

    7.6%

    Grains

    5.2%

    Manure

    4.1%

    Urban waste

    2.9%

    Perennial crops

    35.2%

    Forest

    12.8%

    US Biomass inventory = 1.3 billion tons*

    *Could supply 66% of U.S. transportation fuel

    From: Billion Ton Vision, DOE & USDA 2005


    Current Sustainable Availability of

    Cellulosic Biomass from Agricultural Lands

    6 mdt/year

    21 mdt/year*

    6 mdt/year

    75 mdt/year

    11 mdt/year

    * Oil seeds, soybeans, sugar crops, root crops

    Source: http://feedstockreview.ornl.gov/pdf/billion_ton_vision.pdf


    Feedstocks Used in Attaining the Goal

    Timing and Feedstocks for 25 X ’25



    Three approaches to advanced biofuels
    Three approaches to advanced biofuels

    • Biologically (enzyme) based cellulosic ethanol

    • Thermally based biofuels (including ethanol)

    • Hybrid processing (includes both biological and thermal steps)

    Source: R.C. Brown, ISU


    “Next Generation” Biofuels

    • corn bran

    • corn cobs

    • corn stover

    • dedicated energy crops


    Agricultural & Bioenergy/Bioproduct Value Chain

    Germplasm

    Cultivation

    Harvest

    Transport

    Storage

    Processing

    Ceres

    Syngenta

    Monsanto

    Pioneer/DuPont

    Canavialis

    Dow

    Novozymes

    Genencor

    Poet

    ICM

    Iogen

    Verasun

    ConocoPhillips

    Lack of focus on economic & environmental drivers

    Additional research needed

    Integrated Systems Approach

    “If any one step on the value chain does not work, the entire value chain does not work.”

    Source: Jill Euken and Joe Colletti, ISU


    The first advanced biofuels project in iowa project liberty
    The first “Advanced” Biofuels Project in Iowa: Project LIBERTY

    • Converting Emmetsburg, IA plant to an integrated biorefinery

    • Over $300 million capital investment

    • Will produce 125 million gallons of ethanol

      • 25 million from cellulosic feedstock

    • Cellulosic feedstocks are cobs and corn fiber

    • Multiple synergies with corn and cellulose model


    Why cobs
    Why cobs? LIBERTY

    • Consistency

    • Farmer willingness

    • One pass harvest capability

    • Higher ethanol yield

    • Greater bulk density

    • Proven feedstock

    • Logical first step


    Simplified liberty diagram

    CO2 LIBERTY

    Simplified LIBERTY Diagram

    Ethanol

    Endosperm

    Centrifuge

    & Dry

    Fractionation

    Fermentation

    Distillation

    Grain Corn

    Water

    VA Chemicals

    and modified

    DDGs

    Corn Germ

    Bran

    Ethanol

    Distill

    Corn Cobs

    Pre-treat

    Hydrolysis &

    Ethanol Fermentation

    Co-product stream

    processed into energy

    for the ethanol

    production processes

    and drying DDGs

    Based on information supplied by POET


    Project liberty delivers
    Project LIBERTY Delivers: LIBERTY

    • 11% more ethanol from a bushel of corn

    • 27% more ethanol from an acre of corn

    • Significant reduction in fossil fuel consumption

    • Replicable model for multiple plants



    Stover cob removal concerns
    Stover/cob removal concerns LIBERTY

    • How to “value”

    • Risk

    • Soil organic matter

    • Moisture infiltration

    • Lime needs

    • Long term soil quality parameters.


    2007 harvest objectives
    2007 Harvest Objectives LIBERTY

    To understand impact to the farmer:

    • economics

    • equipment

    • processes

    • storage

    • transportation

    • capital

    • logistics

    • speed

    • labor


    2007 cob harvest
    2007 Cob Harvest LIBERTY

    • Harvested 4,000 acres of cobs in South Dakota

    • Tested multiple harvest methods

    • Collaborating with major equipment manufacturers

    • Conducting over 60 storage experiments





    Cob caddy
    Cob Caddy LIBERTY



    Cob handling
    Cob handling LIBERTY



    Corn cob mix
    Corn cob mix LIBERTY


    Corn cob mix1
    Corn cob mix LIBERTY



    Cob storage experiments
    Cob storage experiments LIBERTY

    • 60 experiments

    • Hybrids

    • Moisture

    • Storage/retrieval/

      delivery


    Looking ahead to third generation bioprocessing
    Looking Ahead to “Third Generation” Bioprocessing LIBERTY

    …..harvesting stover……




    Iowa State University Research LIBERTY

    N, P, and K Nutrient Replacement Costs:

    N, P, and K Nutrient Replacement costs:

    aAverage for fertilizer N, P, and K at Walton, NE, Kelly, IA and Boone, IA in March 2006.

    Nitrogen cost $0.328 lb-1Phosphate cost $0.615 lb-1

    Potassium cost $0.284 lb-1

    Source: Stuart Birrell, ISU


    New cropping systems could provide biomass feedstocks and environmental protection
    New Cropping Systems LIBERTYCould Provide Biomass Feedstocks and Environmental Protection

    • Using double-crop sequences

    • Using herbaceous and woody perennials

    • Recycling nutrients between biorefineries and crop fields


    Focus on iowa a 2006 corn grower survey
    Focus on Iowa: LIBERTYA 2006 Corn Grower Survey…

    Survey data collected post harvest 2006.

    Corn Price at time of survey ≈ $3.40/ Bushel

    Source: John Tyndall, ISU


    Survey: Regionally Stratified Random Sample LIBERTY

    2

    3

    1

    4

    Map from NASS, 2004


    Farmer knowledge of corn stover market
    Farmer Knowledge of Corn Stover Market LIBERTY

    (n = 602)

    How knowledgeable are farmers about

    harvesting & marketing of corn stover?

    • 41% are “not knowledgeable at all”

    • 28% were “a little knowledgeable”

    • 20% feel “somewhat knowledgeable ”.

    • Only 4% feel “very informed”.

      Interestingly, 6% of the respondents were harvesting & selling corn stover in 2006 (mostly in W and NC Iowa).

      Therefore by and large Iowa’s farmers are still in the learning phase of this potential market.

    Source: John Tyndall, ISU


    Farmers believe that harvesting stover will require: LIBERTY

    • increase in capital investment

    • additional managerial knowledge

    • a well-developed support infrastructure.

    Source: John Tyndall, ISU


    Farmer interest in supplying stover 2006

    (n= 602) LIBERTY

    Farmer Interest in Supplying Stover, 2006

    Source: John Tyndall, ISU


    New century farm at iowa state university
    New Century Farm at Iowa State University LIBERTY

    • The first-in-the-nation integrated research and demonstration farm devoted to biomass production, processing and utilization

    • Will be a model for American biorenewable energy and bioproducts development


    Crop production harvest storage transportation research
    Crop Production, Harvest, Storage & Transportation Research LIBERTY

    Production

    Ensure

    Producer Profitability

    +

    Sustainable Supply

    For Biorefineries

    Harvest

    Storage


    2008 growing the bioeconomy conference september 8 9
    2008 Growing the Bioeconomy Conference LIBERTYSeptember 8-9

    SAVE THE DATE


    Jill Euken LIBERTY

    Deputy Director, ISU Bioeconomy Institute

    Project Manager, Biobased Products, ISU Extension/CIRAS

    53020 Hitchcock Ave

    Lewis, IA 51544

    Phone: 712-769-2600

    Email: [email protected]


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