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Corn Investigation. Count the number of kernels that are: yellow & smooth, yellow & wrinkled , purple & smooth, purple & wrinkled. Reduce this ratio to lowest terms (it is okay to have decimals in your answer) What type of inheritance are you examining? (Monohybrid or Dihybrid )?

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Corn investigation
Corn Investigation

  • Count the number of kernels that are: yellow & smooth, yellow & wrinkled, purple & smooth, purple & wrinkled. Reduce this ratio to lowest terms (it is okay to have decimals in your answer)

  • What type of inheritance are you examining? (Monohybrid or Dihybrid)?

  • Based on the ratio from Q1, what could the possible genotypes of the parents be? (hint: do not do a punnett square. Look at the ratio to help you figure out the parents)

  • You are modelling how Mendel recorded data. Is counting an effective way to collect data? Why? What is one experimental error that could have occurred? (Hint: counting wrong is not an error)

Beyond mendelian genetics
Beyond Mendelian Genetics

Beyond mendel
Beyond Mendel

  • Mendelian Genetics deals with inheritance patterns that show complete dominance

  • Meaning, the dominant allele completely masks (overpowers) the expression of the recessive allele

  • Are inheritance patterns in nature always this simple?

Incomplete dominance
Incomplete Dominance

  • A situation where neither of the 2 alleles are dominant over the other.

  • Phenotype of heterozygote is a BLEND of the two alleles.

  • Alleles are written using a superscript letter (ex. CR = Red)

  • Example: snapdragons (see picture)


  • Both alleles are dominant, and thus fully expressed in the heterozygote

  • Exhibited in a heterozygousindividual where both alleles of a gene are expressed, not blended.

Sickle Cell Anemia (blood disease)

Cow coat

Impatien flowers

Examples of co dominance
Examples of Co-Dominance

Talk to me when there’s meat… meeow!


  • black cat x tan cat = Tabbycat (black and tan stripes)

  • Roan coat in horses (white and red hair)

Multiple alleles
Multiple Alleles

  • So far, the inheritance examples we have looked at only have 2 alleles

  • Example: Brown hair or blonde hair, brown eyes or blue eyes, etc.

  • Most traits in nature are controlled by more than 2 alleles, such as human blood groups

Multiple alleles5
Multiple Alleles

  • When more than 3 phenotypes are possible, then more than 2 alleles for that trait must exist in the population.

  • However, individuals have only two of those alleles.


  • Because only one allele is inherited from each parent

Example of multiple alleles
Example of Multiple Alleles

  • The ABO system of human blood type involves three alleles (IA, IB, and i).

  • IA and IB – co-dominant, where “i” is recessive

  • As a result, there are four possible phenotypes or blood types: A, B, AB, and O.

What do the alleles code for
What do the Alleles Code For?

  • The blood types differ due to the molecules that are present on the outside of the red blood cells (antigens)

  • Antigens act as recognition factors for our immune system

What do the alleles code for1

Type A

Type AB

Type B

Type O

What do the Alleles Code For?

Both A & B

No antigens

What do the alleles code for2
What do the Alleles Code For?

  • When white blood cells do not recognize the antigen, it considers the cell an invader and produces antibodies to attack that cell

  • This is why receiving an incorrect blood type will cause agglutination (clumping).

Human blood groups multiple alleles and codominance
Human Blood Groups: Multiple Alleles AND Codominance

  • Human blood types are controlled by a single gene (expressed as an antigen: protein on surface of red blood cell)


  • If a man has type AB blood and his wife has type A blood (heterozygous), what are the possible blood types of their children?