Physical geography of sw central asia and n africa
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Physical Geography of SW & Central Asia, and N. Africa. Ch. 17. Seas & Peninsulas. Arabian Peninsula Separated from Africa by Gulf of Aden & Red Sea Sinai Pen. & Suez Canal separate the land to the north/west Persian Gulf is on the east side. Gulf of Aden. Seas & Peninsulas.

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Seas peninsulas
Seas & Peninsulas

  • Arabian Peninsula

    • Separated from Africa by Gulf of Aden & Red Sea

    • Sinai Pen. &

      Suez Canal separate the land to the north/west

    • Persian Gulf is on the east side

Gulf of Aden


Seas peninsulas1
Seas & Peninsulas

  • Anatolia Pen.

    • Black Sea to N

    • Aegean Sea to W

    • Mediterranean Sea to S

    • Many straits connecting seas ($$)

Bosporus Strait

Aegean Sea

ANATOLIA


Seas peninsulas2
Seas & Peninsulas

  • Strait of Gibraltar

    • Separates Africa from Iberian Pen.

    • Only a dozen

      miles or so

      wide

      • ‘gateway to

        Africa’


Seas peninsulas3
Seas & Peninsulas

  • Dead Sea

    • On Jordan River (border w/ Israel)

    • 8X saltier than any ocean- How come?

    • In the 50s

      • L= 262 m, W= 57 m

    • Today

      • L= 42 m, W= 11 m


Dead Sea: Lowest Point on Earth

2,300’ below sea level

HighestSaltContent(33%)


Seas peninsulas4
Seas & Peninsulas

  • Caspian Sea

    • Largest inland/landlocked body of water (lake)

    • But it is salt water!! (remnants of larger sea)

    • Facing evaporation increases, decrease in

      flow from feeder rivers,

      and increase in irrigation/industry uses


Seas peninsulas5
Seas & Peninsulas

  • Aral Sea

    • Use to be lg & have productive fishing

    • Shrunk drastically due to USSR draining it for irrigation

    • Ppl build sm. dams to create basins of freshwater from rivers


Rivers
Rivers

  • Nile River

    • Longest in world

    • Flows NORTH to Med. Sea

    • 90% of Egyptians live in delta or along river (= 3% of land)

    • Faces great flood seasons  built Aswan High Dam for control

Aswan High Dam


Egypt: The “Gift of the Nile”

Nile Delta

Annual Nile Flooding

90% of the Egyptian people live on 3% of the land!


Rivers1
Rivers

  • Tigris & Euphrates

    • Mesopotamia or ‘land b/w two rivers’; aka Fertile Crescent

    • Join to form Shatt al Arab

      • Border of Iraq &

        Iran

      • Wars & treaties

        over it


Rivers2
Rivers

  • Wadis- dry streambeds that will fill with heavy rain  flash floods (seasonal)

    • Since they are typically arid, creates mud quickly dangerous mud flows

Wadi in Oman


Plains plateaus mtns
Plains, Plateaus, & Mtns.

  • Since most is desert/steppe agricultural base = coastal areas of Med. Sea, Caspian Sea, & Persian Gulf

  • Atlas Mtns

    • Longest mtn

      range

      • Stretches from

        Morocco to Algeria

    • Northern side of Atlas allows for lots of agric. (farms, fishing, livestock)

      • Rainy side, Med. climate


Plains plateaus mtns1
Plains, Plateaus, & Mtns.

  • Hejaz & Asir

    • West coast of Arabian Pen.

    • Rainshadow effect to Central Plateau

  • Caucasus Mtns

    • b/w Black & Caspian Sea

    • Seen as border b/w

      European Russia

      & Asia


Plains plateaus mtns2
Plains, Plateaus, & Mtns.

  • Garagum (Karakum)-

    • Black sand desert, covers 70% of Turkmenistan

  • Qizilqum (Kyzyl Kum)-

    • Red sand desert in Uzbekistan & Kazakhstan

Use wide spaces for livestock


Tectonic activity
Tectonic Activity

  • Meeting point of the African, Arabian, & Eurasian plates

    • Reason for mountainous terrain

    • Many earthquakes

      • Turkey 1999

      • Iran has 90% of land on faults

    • Landforms still Δing

      • Red Sea


Natural resources
Natural Resources

  • Oil (petroleum) & nat. gas are region’s most abundant resources

    • 70% of world’s oil

    • 33% of world’s nat. gas

      • Reserves are still being discovered!

    • WWII sparked production as we moved to modern industry/reliance




Leading U. S. Oil Suppliers

The U. S. imports 30% of its oil needs from the Middle East.


Natural resources1
Natural Resources

Completed Dubai Tower, Monday night

  • Why might such heavy dependence on oil be risky?

    • Many countries are now diversifying

      • UAE  banking, info. tech, tourism

      • Libya  infrastructure, fisheries


Homework
Homework

  • Complete the Guided Reading for Ch. 17 Sec. 2


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