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DC Power for Data Centers – demonstration summary. My Ton – Ecos Consulting Brian Fortenbery – EPRI Solutions Bill Tschudi – Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Sponsored by: California Energy Commission (CEC) ─ Public Interest Energy Research (PIER),

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My Ton – Ecos Consulting Brian Fortenbery – EPRI Solutions Bill Tschudi – Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

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My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

DC Power for Data Centers – demonstration summary

My Ton – Ecos Consulting

Brian Fortenbery – EPRI Solutions

Bill Tschudi – Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Sponsored by:

California Energy Commission (CEC)─Public Interest Energy Research (PIER),

California Institute for Energy Efficiency (CIEE).


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

Overview – Phase 1

Rationale for the study

Background on power

conversions and their

efficiencies

Demonstration objectives

Industry partners

Configurations

Results


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

Thomas Edison:

“My personal desire would be to prohibit entirely the use of alternating currents. They are as unnecessary as they are dangerous. I can therefore see no justification for the introduction of a system which has no element of permanency and every element of danger to life and property.”


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

California Energy Commission

Public Interest Energy Research

High-tech Buildings Project Objectives

  • Research, develop, and demonstrate, innovative energy efficient technologies

  • 10-year initiative focusing on high-tech industries – e.g. data centers

  • Help move the market to more efficient technologies

  • Research and demonstration projects include technology transfer


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

Why look at Data Centers?

  • Data center power use nationally is large and growing.

  • Two prior studies estimated data center energy use:

  • 2004 EPRI/Ecos estimated 14.8 TWh

  • 2000 Arthur D. Little estimated 10.1 TWh

  • 0ne terawatthour = 1,000,000,000 kilowatthours or

  • one million megawatthours

  • Saving a fraction of this energy is substantial


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

Loads

Power delivery

Cooling

Cumulative Power

Representative Data Center Power Use

~50% Power Efficiency

6

Source: Intel Corp.


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

Power to meet a 100 W Computing Load

Load 100W

Total 275W

VR 20W

PSU 50W

Server fans 15W

UPS +PDU 20W

Room cooling system 70W

source: Intel Corporation

Source: Intel Corp.

7


Dc demonstration timeline

DC Demonstration – Timeline

  • Stakeholders first met – Fall 2005

  • Kick-off meeting – April 2006

  • Equipment assembly – May 2006

  • Initial “Team Open House” June 7, 2006

  • Public Open House events: June 21,

    July 12, 26; Aug 9, 16

  • End date – August 16, 2006


Industry partners made it happen

Industry Partners Made it Happen

  • Alindeska Electrical Contractors

  • APC

  • Baldwin Technologies

  • Cisco Systems

  • Cupertino Electric

  • Dranetz-BMI

  • Emerson Network Power

  • Industrial Network Manufacturing (IEM)

Equipment and Services Contributors:

  • Intel

  • Nextek Power Systems

  • Pentadyne

  • Rosendin Electric

  • SatCon Power Systems

  • Square D/Schneider Electric

  • Sun Microsystems

  • UNIVERSAL Electric Corp.


Other partners collaborated

Other Partners Collaborated

  • 380voltsdc.com

  • CCG Facility Integration

  • Cingular Wireless

  • Dupont Fabros

  • EDG2, Inc.

  • EYP Mission Critical

  • Gannett

  • Hewlett Packard

Stakeholders:

  • Morrison Hershfield Corporation

  • NTT Facilities

  • RTKL

  • SBC Global

  • TDI Power

  • Verizon Wireless


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

Data Center Power Use

  • Data center power use nationally is large and growing.

  • Two studies estimated data center energy use:

  • 2004 EPRI/Ecos estimated 14.8 TWh

  • 2000 Arthur D. Little estimated 10.1 TWh

  • 0ne terawatthour = 1,000,000,000 kilowatthours or

  • one million megawatthours

  • Saving a fraction of this energy is substantial


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

This demonstration focused on reducing power delivery and conversion losses observed in our prior work:

Power Supplies in IT equipment

Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)


Ups and power supply efficiency

UPS and Power Supply efficiency

  • We observed a wide range of performance from the worst to the best

  • Our original goal was to move the market to the higher performing systems

  • Incentive programs, labeling, education programs were all options – and still are


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

Data Center Power Delivery System

DC/DC

78 - 85%

UPS

88 - 92%

Power Dist

98 - 99%

Power Supply

68 - 72%

The heat generated from the losses at each step of power conversion requires additional cooling power

HVAC: Power for cooling can equal or exceed the direct losses


The questions we were addressing

The questions we were addressing:

Could some of the conversion steps be eliminated to improve efficiency? Could a demonstration be devised to measure actual savings?


Dc demonstration objectives

DC Demonstration - Objectives

The demonstration’s original objectives were to show a rack level solution:

  • DC powered server equipment exists in the same form factor or can readily be built from existing components

  • DC powered server equipment can provide the same level of functionality and computing performance when compared to similarly configured and operating AC server equipment

  • Efficiency gains from the elimination of multiple conversion steps can be measured by comparing traditional AC delivery to a DC system

  • DC system reliability could be as good or better than AC system reliability


The project team soon defined additional objectives

The project team soon defined additional objectives:

  • Demonstration of 380 V. DC distribution at the facility level compared to conventional AC systems

  • Demonstration of other DC solutions (48 volt systems)

  • Evaluation of safety considerations

  • Demonstrate ability to connect alternative energy solutions (PV, fuel cells, etc.)


What the demonstration included

What the demonstration included

  • Side-by-side comparison of traditional AC system with new DC system

    • Facility level distribution

    • Rack level distribution

  • Power measurements at conversion points

  • Servers modified to accept 380 V. DC

  • Artificial loads to more fully simulate data center


Additional items included

Additional items included

  • Racks distributing 48 volts to illustrate that other DC solutions are available, however no energy monitoring was provided for this configuration

  • DC lighting was included!


Typical ac distribution today

Typical AC Distribution Today


Facility level dc distribution

Facility-Level DC Distribution

380V.DC


Rack level dc distribution

Rack-Level DC Distribution


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

Demonstration Layout


Details

Details

  • Safety was reviewed by a committee of the partners. No significant issues were identified. Only concern was whether fault currents would be large enough to trip protective devices. Final report will address safety and applicable codes and standards

  • All distribution equipment is UL rated for DC applications

  • No standard connector has been agreed upon for the server DC connection

  • With widespread adoption, reliability should be improved – fewer potential points of failure. Eliminating heat sources should help.


Measured results

Measured Results

  • Facility level overall efficiency improvement:

    10 to 20%

  • Smaller rack level overall efficiency improvement but other benefits include:

    • Thermal benefits

    • Smaller power supply in server

    • Transition strategy for existing centers


Ac system loss compared to dc

AC system loss compared to DC

9% measured improvement

2-5% measured improvement


Implications could be even better for a typical data center

Implications could be even better for a typical data center

  • Redundant UPS and server power supplies operate at reduced efficiency

  • Cooling loads would be reduced.

  • Both UPS systems used in the AC base case were “best in class” sytems and performed better than benchmarked systems – efficiency gains compared to typical systems could be higher.

  • Further optimization of conversion devices/voltages is possible


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

UPS

XFMR

PS

Total Efficiency

System Efficiency

87.00%

98.00%

90.00%

76.73%

High Efficiency (DC Option)

92.00%

100.00%

92.00%

84.64%

Compute Load (W)

Input Load (W)

Difference

System Load

10,000

13032.03

High Efficiency (DC Option)

10,000

11814.74

9.34%

Data Center Power Delivery System

UPS

87 - 92%

XFMR

98% - NA

Power Supply

90 - 92%


My ton ecos consulting brian fortenbery epri solutions bill tschudi lawrence berkeley national laboratory

UPS

XFMR

PS

Total Efficiency

Typical System Efficiency

85.00%

98.00%

73.00%

60.81%

High Efficiency (DC Option)

92.00%

100.00%

82.00%

75.44%

Optimized DC Option

92.00%

100.00%

92.00%

84.64%

Compute Load (W)

Input Load (W)

Difference

Typical Load

10,000

16444.93

High Efficiency (DC Option)

10,000

13255.57

19.39%

Optimized DC Option

10,000

11814.74

28.16%

Data Center Power Delivery System

UPS

85 - 92%

Power Dist

98% - NA

Power Supply

73 - 92%


Results

Results

What does 15% increase in efficiency mean

to the electrical power grid?


Dc power next steps

DC Power - next steps:

  • DC power pilot installation(s)

  • Standardize distribution voltage

  • Standardize DC connector and power strip design

  • Server manufacturers develop power supply specifications

  • Power supply manufacturers develop prototypes

  • UL and communications certification

  • Address other types of IT equipment (storage, switches, etc.)


Follow progress on dc power in data centers on line

Follow progress on DC power in data centers on-line

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

websites for more information

  • http://hightech.lbl.gov/

  • http://hightech.lbl.gov/dc-powering/


Additional information

Additional Information

Project Coordination & Contacts:

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  • Bill Tschudi, Principal Investigator

    [email protected]

    Ecos Consulting

  • My Ton

    [email protected]

    EPRI Solutions

  • Brian Fortenbery

    [email protected]


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