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Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

()

13

Chapter 13 Hydrogen and rare gases


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

1.

2. ()

3.

4.

http://www.xcac.sc.cn


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

3.

  • VSEPR


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

13.1

hydrogen

13.2

rare gases


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

H

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

8

O

Fe

6

4

Z

log

2

Sc

Pb

Xe

Z

0

Th

Bi

Pb

2

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

13.1

13.1.1

15. ( ) H2 .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(s) (l) (s)

/gcm-30.5620.0710.089

82%17%<1%.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

*() protium 1H H

() deuterium 2H D

() tritium 3H T

* .

H2 D2 H2O D2O

/252.8 249.7 100.00 101.42

/ kJmol1436.0 443.3 463.5 470.9

3 4H 5H. D2O 0.016%.

10BF3 11BF3 .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

R

HH

DD

H2

D2

H2, D2

H2O D2O O H O O DO. .. . D2ODO.

H2 D2O D.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

1 3.1.2

H2

(1) 1H+ ;

(2)1H- ;

(3)


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(1) 2E + H2(g) 2 EH

2Li(l) + H2(g) 2LiH(s)

(2) Brnsted E- + H2O(ag)EH + OH-

Li3N(s) +3H2O(l)3Li(OH) (ag) + NH3(g)

(3)

EH + EX EX + EH

LiAlH4 + SiCl4 LiAlCl4 + SiH4

(1)().(2) (3)..


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

().... .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(1) s. MH NaCl .

(2) H- 126pm (LiH) 154pm(CsH) . H- X - F- Cl-. NaCl .

3H-H2

2 H- H2 + 2e-

  • H- +H2O OH- + H2

  • H- .

  • (

  • N2,Ar).

  • H2 .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

35d f


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(1) .

(2) .

(3) PbH0.8 .

(4) .

(5)

.

H+.

H-1.

6 Pt Pt PtH

Pt Pt

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

.

523 K

2 Pd + H2 2 PdH U + 3/2 H2 UH3

,327 K

573 K

(2~3) 105Pa

LaNi5 + 3 H2 LaNi5H6, H2

PdH2

HPd

Pd

Ag

.

(7)

1 Pd 700 H2


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

p2 (CH4NH3H2OHF)


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

.B2H6.

B2H6

CH4.

CH4

NH3.

NH3

(1)

(2)

(3)


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

i .Pr

iPr

iPr

P

OC

H

W

CO

OC

H

P

iPr

iPr

iPr

W(CO)3[P(C3H7)3]2(2-H2)

  • H2

HH HH

1985 H2 W(CO)3 [P(C3H7)3]2 (2-H2), .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

.H2. H2 sd s d H2 .H2 ..

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

H .2ONH3HF

. .

- (Cl2,CH4, Ar, Xe)().


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

Question .

HfH1.5 PH3 CsH B2H6

HfH1.5CsH d f . s . p PH3 B2H6.

Lewis PH3 P .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

N .2

NaH

CH4

C

H2O

H2

H2

H2

H2

H2

H2

H2

1143 K

1273 K

pyrolysis

elecrolysis

photolysis

H2S + Pb2+ + 2H2O PbS + 2H3O+

H2S ZnS

AsH3 As

AsH3+3Ag2SO4+3H2O6Ag+H3AsO3+3H2SO4

SO2 H2SO4

SO2 + 2KOH K2SO3 + H2O

13.1.3 (500109m3)

Zn + H3O+ Zn2+ + 2H2O + H2


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

1 273 .K

1 273 K

CH4(g) + H2O(g) 3 H2(g) + CO(g)

.

C (s) + H2O(g) H2(g) + CO(g)

.

Fe2O3

CO + H2 + H2O(g) CO2 + 2 H2

> 723 K

.

H2(g) + CO(g) . CO.

CO CO2 2106 CO2 H2 CO2 H2 .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

Question .

CH4(g) + H2O(g) 3 H2(g) + CO(g)Hm = 206.0 kJmol1

C (s) + H2O(g) H2(g) + CO(g), Hm = 131.3 kJmol1

C + O2 CO2, Hm = 393.7 kJmol1

CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O, Hm = 803.3 kJmol1

H2

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

.

20% NaOH 15% KOH 32%

4OH- O2+2H2O + 4e- ()

2H2O +2e- 2OH- + H2 ()

H2

(383423K)(10133039kPa) 90% .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

h .

(2,2) ()(2a) 2a*()

2a H+ H2 .

. 1100 20 99.9%.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

.

H2(g)

Fe( ),Fe()

MichiganH. Ti Tien

().H2.Fe2+.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

H .2


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

/kJkg-1

H2 120918

B5H9 64183

C5H12 43367

13.1.4


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

/.

.

1 800 m3

21


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

/


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

1 /3.2

13.2.1

(1)

18

1

(noble metals)

21962

inert gases)

3

4

5(monoatomic gaselements.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(2 /

. 1785Cavendish 1/120. . . 1893 Rayleigh Ramsay 1.2507g1.2565g 5.8 mg argon, . .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

He /He-Ne-O2

Ne

Ar

Kr

Xe XeO2,

13.2..2

HeRn. He (b. p. 4.2K). Rn Ra

226

88

Ra

Rn

Po

218

84

226

86

Ra-Rn 30d1g Ra 0.64 mm3 Rn. Rn


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

13.2.3 /

1

1962332645Bartlett N

XePtF6

O2g+ PtF6(s) = O2+[PtF6]-(s)

O2 O2+ + e-

Xe Xe+ + e-

I1=1180 kJmol-1

I2=1170 kJmol-1

r =201 pm

R =210 pm

O2+

Xe+

Xe[PtF6] -60 KJmol-1

U

Xe+[PtF6]- Xe+ (g) + [PtF6]- (g)

EA

I

fHm(Xe[PtF6])

Xe(g) + PtF6(g)


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(2) /

Xe (g) + F2 (g) XeF2 (s) (Xe) K(250)=8.79104

Xe (g) + 2 F2 (g) XeF4 (s) [n(Xe):n(F2) = 1:5] K(250)=1.07104

Xe (g) + 3 F2 (g) XeF6 (s) [n(Xe):n(F2) = 1:20] K(250)=1.01108

F2 NiF2 .

. XeF6

XeF6(s) + 3 H2O(l) XeO3(aq) + 6 HF(g)

2 XeF6(s) + 3 SiO2 (s) 2 XeO3(s) + 3 SiF4(g)

XeO3 XeHXeO4- H2OXeO64 - Xe:

pH10

+OH-

XeO3 + OH- HXeO4- XeO64 - + Xe + O2 + H2O


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

/3

XeF2 HCl Cl

KI I2

Ce(III) Ce(IV)

Co(II) Co(III)

Ag(I) Ag(II)

1968 BrO4-:

NaBrO3 + XeF2 + H2O NaBrO4 + 2HF + Xe

XeF2 + 2HSO3F Xe + HF + 2 SO3F()

2 SO3F S2O6F2

XeKr; XeF4UPu

Np UF6 .

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

/4


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

/

134910


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