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Chapter 13 Hydrogen and rare gases

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Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

()

13

Chapter 13 Hydrogen and rare gases


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

1.

2. ()

3.

4.

http://www.xcac.sc.cn


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

3.

  • VSEPR


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

13.1

hydrogen

13.2

rare gases


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

H

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

8

O

Fe

6

4

Z

log

2

Sc

Pb

Xe

Z

0

Th

Bi

Pb

2

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

13.1

13.1.1

15. ( ) H2 .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(s) (l) (s)

/gcm-30.5620.0710.089

82%17%<1%.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

*() protium 1H H

() deuterium 2H D

() tritium 3H T

* .

H2 D2 H2O D2O

/252.8 249.7 100.00 101.42

/ kJmol1436.0 443.3 463.5 470.9

3 4H 5H. D2O 0.016%.

10BF3 11BF3 .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

R

HH

DD

H2

D2

H2, D2

H2O D2O O H O O DO. .. . D2ODO.

H2 D2O D.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

13.1.2

H2

(1) 1H+ ;

(2)1H- ;

(3)


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(1) 2E + H2(g) 2 EH

2Li(l) + H2(g) 2LiH(s)

(2) Brnsted E- + H2O(ag)EH + OH-

Li3N(s) +3H2O(l)3Li(OH) (ag) + NH3(g)

(3)

EH + EX EX + EH

LiAlH4 + SiCl4 LiAlCl4 + SiH4

(1)().(2) (3)..


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

().... .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(1) s. MH NaCl .

(2) H- 126pm (LiH) 154pm(CsH) . H- X - F- Cl-. NaCl .

3H-H2

2 H- H2 + 2e-

  • H- +H2O OH- + H2

  • H- .

  • (

  • N2,Ar).

  • H2 .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

35d f


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(1) .

(2) .

(3) PbH0.8 .

(4) .

(5)

.

H+.

H-1.

6 Pt Pt PtH

Pt Pt

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

523 K

2 Pd + H2 2 PdH U + 3/2 H2 UH3

,327 K

573 K

(2~3) 105Pa

LaNi5 + 3 H2 LaNi5H6, H2

PdH2

HPd

Pd

Ag

.

(7)

1 Pd 700 H2


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

  • ()

p2 (CH4NH3H2OHF)


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

B2H6.

B2H6

CH4.

CH4

NH3.

NH3

(1)

(2)

(3)


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

iPr

iPr

iPr

P

OC

H

W

CO

OC

H

P

iPr

iPr

iPr

W(CO)3[P(C3H7)3]2(2-H2)

  • H2

HH HH

1985 H2 W(CO)3 [P(C3H7)3]2 (2-H2), .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

H2. H2 sd s d H2 .H2 ..

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

H2ONH3HF

. .

- (Cl2,CH4, Ar, Xe)().


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

Question

HfH1.5 PH3 CsH B2H6

HfH1.5CsH d f . s . p PH3 B2H6.

Lewis PH3 P .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

N2

NaH

CH4

C

H2O

H2

H2

H2

H2

H2

H2

H2

1143 K

1273 K

pyrolysis

elecrolysis

photolysis

H2S + Pb2+ + 2H2O PbS + 2H3O+

H2S ZnS

AsH3 As

AsH3+3Ag2SO4+3H2O6Ag+H3AsO3+3H2SO4

SO2 H2SO4

SO2 + 2KOH K2SO3 + H2O

13.1.3 (500109m3)

Zn + H3O+ Zn2+ + 2H2O + H2


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

1 273 K

1 273 K

CH4(g) + H2O(g) 3 H2(g) + CO(g)

.

C (s) + H2O(g) H2(g) + CO(g)

.

Fe2O3

CO + H2 + H2O(g) CO2 + 2 H2

> 723 K

.

H2(g) + CO(g) . CO.

CO CO2 2106 CO2 H2 CO2 H2 .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

Question

CH4(g) + H2O(g) 3 H2(g) + CO(g)Hm = 206.0 kJmol1

C (s) + H2O(g) H2(g) + CO(g), Hm = 131.3 kJmol1

C + O2 CO2, Hm = 393.7 kJmol1

CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O, Hm = 803.3 kJmol1

H2

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

20% NaOH 15% KOH 32%

4OH- O2+2H2O + 4e- ()

2H2O +2e- 2OH- + H2 ()

H2

(383423K)(10133039kPa) 90% .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

h

(2,2) ()(2a) 2a*()

2a H+ H2 .

. 1100 20 99.9%.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

H2(g)

Fe( ),Fe()

MichiganH. Ti Tien

().H2.Fe2+.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

H2


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

/kJkg-1

H2 120918

B5H9 64183

C5H12 43367

13.1.4


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

.

.

1 800 m3

21


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

13.2

13.2.1

(1)

18

1

(noble metals)

21962

inert gases)

3

4

5(monoatomic gaselements.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(2

. 1785Cavendish 1/120. . . 1893 Rayleigh Ramsay 1.2507g1.2565g 5.8 mg argon, . .


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

He He-Ne-O2

Ne

Ar

Kr

Xe XeO2,

13.2..2

HeRn. He (b. p. 4.2K). Rn Ra

226

88

Ra

Rn

Po

218

84

226

86

Ra-Rn 30d1g Ra 0.64 mm3 Rn. Rn


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

13.2.3

1

1962332645Bartlett N

XePtF6

O2g+ PtF6(s) = O2+[PtF6]-(s)

O2 O2+ + e-

Xe Xe+ + e-

I1=1180 kJmol-1

I2=1170 kJmol-1

r =201 pm

R =210 pm

O2+

Xe+

Xe[PtF6] -60 KJmol-1

U

Xe+[PtF6]- Xe+ (g) + [PtF6]- (g)

EA

I

fHm(Xe[PtF6])

Xe(g) + PtF6(g)


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

(2)

Xe (g) + F2 (g) XeF2 (s) (Xe) K(250)=8.79104

Xe (g) + 2 F2 (g) XeF4 (s) [n(Xe):n(F2) = 1:5] K(250)=1.07104

Xe (g) + 3 F2 (g) XeF6 (s) [n(Xe):n(F2) = 1:20] K(250)=1.01108

F2 NiF2 .

. XeF6

XeF6(s) + 3 H2O(l) XeO3(aq) + 6 HF(g)

2 XeF6(s) + 3 SiO2 (s) 2 XeO3(s) + 3 SiF4(g)

XeO3 XeHXeO4- H2OXeO64 - Xe:

pH10

+OH-

XeO3 + OH- HXeO4- XeO64 - + Xe + O2 + H2O


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

3

XeF2 HCl Cl

KI I2

Ce(III) Ce(IV)

Co(II) Co(III)

Ag(I) Ag(II)

1968 BrO4-:

NaBrO3 + XeF2 + H2O NaBrO4 + 2HF + Xe

XeF2 + 2HSO3F Xe + HF + 2 SO3F()

2 SO3F S2O6F2

XeKr; XeF4UPu

Np UF6 .

.


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

4


Chapter 13 hydrogen and rare gases

134910


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