Introduction to Environmental Science

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Introduction to Environmental Science

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2. ??? ??

3. ??????? ?????. ????????. ???????,2005.9 (??) ???. ?????. ?????,1982 ??,???,?????. ???? ?(???). ???????,1994.5 ?????. ????????. ??? ????,2002.1 ?????. ????:????. ?? ???,2004.10 Eldon D. Enger, Bradley F. Smith. Environmental Science, ???????(???)……

4. ???? ????(30%) ????(30%) ????(40%)

5. ???????????

7. ??? ?????? «????????????»:“??????,??????????????????????????????,????????????????????????????????????????????????????????” ??????????(Environment,Surroundings) :??????

9. ????(Environment capacity):???????????????????,?????????????????

10. ??? ????????????????

12. ???????,??????????????????????,??????????????????????????????????“????????”,??,?????????????????,???????????????????,????????????????,???170???,??????????????????????,????????????,???????????????,?????????????????????? ?????????????,???????????,????????????????????,?????,???????????,?????????????????????????????????????,??????????????,???????,????????,???????????????????;????,?????,????????????,?????????,????????????????,???????????,??????,??????????????????????,???????,?????????????????,???? ????????????????????,??????????????????????,??????????????????????????????????“????????”,??,?????????????????,???????????????????,????????????????,???170???,??????????????????????,????????????,???????????????,???????????????????????????????????,???????????,????????????????????,?????,???????????,?????????????????????????????????????,??????????????,???????,????????,???????????????????;????,?????,????????????,?????????,????????????????,???????????,??????,??????????????????????,???????,?????????????????,???? ?????????????

13. ?????????? ??1???????????

15. ????? ??????????,???????????,??????????,?????????,?????? ???????????????????????(??????),?????????????????,??????????????,??????????????????——“????”?«??????»?60?????……?????????????????????????,???????????“????”??????????????,????????????????????,??????????????????????,????????????,??????????????????,2000???????????????????????,?????????????????????1/4,??????????,????,??????????,?????????? ???????????????????????(??????),?????????????????,??????????????,??????????????????——“????”?«??????»?60?????……?????????????????????????,???????????“????”??????????????,????????????????????,??????????????????????,????????????,??????????????????,2000???????????????????????,?????????????????????1/4,??????????,????,??????????,??????????

16. ????? ????????????????????,???????????????????????????????????4000-5000??,?????????,??????????????????????????????,?????????????,???????????,???????,????????,?????????????????????????,????????????,???????,???????????????????,????????65?????????????????????????????,???????????????????????????????????4000-5000??,?????????,??????????????????????????????,?????????????,???????????,???????,????????,?????????????????????????,????????????,???????,???????????????????,????????65?????????

17. ????

18. “???????????????????????,???????,???????,????????,?????????????????,??????????????,?????????????????????????,?????????????????????,???????,????,?????????????????????;????????,?????.??????????????????,????????????????????” —— ???

19. “??????????????????,??????????,???????????????,?????????????????,??????????????????????????,?????????????” —— ??? “??????????:???????,?????????????,??????????????,--???,????????????????????,???????;???????????,?????????????,??????????????” “??????????:???????,?????????????,??????????????,--???,????????????????????,???????;???????????,?????????????,??????????????”

20. ???18??????????«??????»?????????,?????????????? 14???,????????,????????????????,?????????

21. ?????????????????????????????????????,????????????????????????????,??????????????;???????????,??????????,?????????????? … … ?????????????,???????????????,????????????????????  ??????????????????????:?????????????????,???????????????????????,??????,??????????,??????????????????“???????”?  ??????????????????????:?????????????????,???????????????????????,??????,??????????,??????????????????“???????”?

22. “????????,????????????????????,??????????????,?????????(??)???,???????????……?????????,??????,?????????,????????????????????????????????????,?????????……?????????,???????,?????????????,???????????????……???,????????????????,???????,??????????……??????????????,???????????,????????????????”?

23. ??????????? ? ? ??????? ?????????????????——???,????????????????????????????????????,??????????????,???21680??? ? ? ??????? ?????????????????——???,????????????????????????????????????,??????????????,???21680???

24. «???·????»?:“???,?????????”? ???????????????????????,????????“????”,???????????????????,?????????,??????,????????,????,????,????,????????????,?????????????????,????????,?????????,??????????,???????,????????,??????????????,???????? ???????????????????????,????????“????”,???????????????????,?????????,??????,????????,????,????,????,????????????,?????????????????,????????,?????????,??????????,???????,????????,??????????????,????????

25. ?????? 1930?12?1??5?,?????????????????????,??13?????????????,??????????????,??????????????60????,?????????20???????????????

26. ?????????? 1943???,????250???????1100 t ??????????????,???????????????,????????,????????? ??????1955 ??1970???? ???????? ?,???400? ???????? ???????

27. 1948?10???,?????????????????,?????????,??????????????,??14000???6000???????????????????17????

28. ?1952???,?? ???12???????? 1952?12????,?? ??,???????? ??????????? ??????,????????,?????????????????????,5???4000????,??????8000?????

29. 1953-1956?,?????????????????????,??????????????,???????????1991?,??????????????2248?,??1004????

30. 1955-1972?,??????????????????????,????????????“?”???????????,?????????????,????????????,????,????????

31. 1961?,?????????????????????,??????,???????????,??????????????,?????????????

32. 1968?,????????,?????????????????,????????????????????13000????????,????,??????,???????,??????,?????

33. 1962?,????????R. ?????«?????»??,???????????????????? «?????»????????????,????????

34. 1972?6?5??6?16?,??????????????????????,??????????,????????????????????????????????????????????????????????:«??????»?«???????????»?

37. 1992?6?13?,??????????? “??????????”,?????183??????????,???102??????????,???????????????????? “??????”?

38. ?????????????????????????????

40. 2002?8?26-9?4???????????“???????????”?????????“21????”?????????????????,????????????????,????????“??????????”??10????????“???????????????”???????

42. ??? ??????? ????(Environmental Science)??????,???20??50—60??? ????,?20??30?????????????????,?????????????????????????????

43. ????????????????????????????,??????????????????

45. ???????????????????????,?????,??????????????,??????????????,???????,???????????

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