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Sea Power and Maritime Affairs. Lesson 7: The Civil War, 1861-1865. Learning Objectives. Comprehend the role of the Union Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Confederacy. Comprehend the role of the Confederate Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Union.

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Sea power and maritime affairs

Sea Power and Maritime Affairs

Lesson 7: The Civil War, 1861-1865


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Comprehend the role of the Union Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Confederacy.

  • Comprehend the role of the Confederate Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Union.

  • Know the reasons for vital importance of acquisition of European allies in the South’s Naval Strategy.

  • Know the innovations in naval weapons and technology that emerged during the Civil War.


Remember our themes

Remember our Themes!

  • The Navy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy

  • Interaction between Congress and the Navy

  • Interservice Relations

  • Technology

  • Leadership

  • Strategy and Tactics

  • Evolution of Naval Doctrine


Scope

Scope

  • Background

  • Naval Comparison

  • Diplomacy

  • Strategy

  • Important Operations and Battles

  • The Influence of Technology


Sea power and maritime affairs

Background of the War


War between the states

War between the States

  • Dispute between slave and free states over status of western territories.

    • Missouri Compromise - 1820.

    • Kansas-Nebraska Act - 1854.

    • Dred Scott Decision - 1857.

  • Southern states secede after Lincoln elected in 1860.

  • Confederate States of America established - Feb 1861.

  • Status of federal territory in the Confederacy in question.

  • Fort Sumter, Charleston, South Carolina:

    • Attacked by Confederate forces on April 12, 1861.


Fort sumter

Fort Sumter


Sea power and maritime affairs

Naval Comparison


A navy divided

David Glasgow Farragut

David Dixon Porter

John Ericcson

John Dahlgren

Charles Wilkes

Samuel F. DuPont

Franklin Buchanan

Matthew Fontaine Maury

Raphael Semmes

A Navy Divided


Balance of naval power

Balance of Naval Power

NorthSouth

  • Naval Yards

  • Ship Builders

  • Industrial Base

  • Number of Ships

  • Leadership


Balance of naval power1

Balance of Naval Power

NorthSouth

  • Naval Yards 4

  • Ship Builders

  • Industrial Base

  • Number of Ships

  • Leadership


Balance of naval power2

Balance of Naval Power

NorthSouth

  • Naval Yards 4

  • Ship Builders 4

  • Industrial Base

  • Number of Ships

  • Leadership


Balance of naval power3

Balance of Naval Power

NorthSouth

  • Naval Yards 4

  • Ship Builders 4

  • Industrial Base 4

  • Number of Ships

  • Leadership


Balance of naval power4

Balance of Naval Power

NorthSouth

  • Naval Yards 4

  • Ship Builders 4

  • Industrial Base 4

  • Number of Ships 4

  • Leadership


Balance of naval power5

Balance of Naval Power

NorthSouth

  • Naval Yards 4

  • Ship Builders 4

  • Industrial Base 4

  • Number of Ships 4

  • Leadership 4


Common operational heritage union and confederate navies

Common Operational HeritageUnion and Confederate Navies

  • War of 1812 — Coastal defense and commerce raiding:

    • Fighting from an inferior position against an enemy that has “command of the sea”.

  • 1815-1846 — Global deployments:

    • Protection of American maritime commerce overseas.

  • 1846-1848 — Mexican-American War

    • U.S. Navy controls the seas throughout the war.

    • Ports established on the Pacific Coast.


Naval comparison

Naval Comparison

  • The Confederate Navy

    • Inferior naval strength.

    • U.S. Navy traditions prior to the Mexican-American War - Defensive.

      • Coastal defense.

      • Commerce raiding (Guerre de course).

  • The Union Navy

    • Superior naval strength built up throughout the war.

    • Royal Navy traditions and U.S. Navy traditions in the Mexican-American War - Offensive.

      • Establish control of sea lines of communication.

        • Blockade of enemy coast.

        • Power projection through amphibious assault.


Sea power and maritime affairs

Diplomacy


Diplomacy for the north

Diplomacy for the North

  • Keep Great Britain truly neutral

  • Reconcile the blockade of Southern ports with British freedom of trade.

  • Problem: Strong pro-Confederacy sentiment in important segments of British policy-making elites.


Diplomacy for the south

Diplomacy for the South

  • Win British recognition and naval aid.

    • Problems:

      • War is viewed as a rebellion - not a conflict between sovereign states.

      • Outcome of the war is uncertain.

      • Diplomatic inexperience and a weak State Department.

      • Fallacy of the "King Cotton" thesis.

      • Slavery

  • 1861- The “Trent Affair”

    • Union Navy violates neutral rights of British ship.


Outcome of diplomacy

Outcome of Diplomacy

  • Ultimately a Failure

  • Naval Agent James Bulloch gets that aid

    - Commerce raiders (Alabama, Florida, Shenandoah)

    - Blockade Runners

    - Laird rams (clearly warships; blockade breakers)

  • Battle of Antietam (September 1862), Emancipation Proclamation, and Charles F. Adams’ protests end aid.


Strategy

Strategy

19 June 1864


Union naval strategy

Union Naval Strategy

  • Part of General Winfield Scott’s master “Anaconda Plan” for victory.

  • Blockade the entire Confederate coast.

    • Capture Southern ports for coal, water, food: bombardment and amphibious assaults.

  • Control of Mississippi River.

    • Vital line of communication for Confederacy.

    • Cut off Texas, Arkansas and Louisiana.

  • Riverine operations in western areas.

    • Combined Army-Navy operations against Confederate forces.

  • Union Army -- Capture Confederate capital at Richmond.


Confederate naval strategy

Confederate Naval Strategy

  • Part of overall strategy of “Attrition Warfare”.

    • Army will defend territory and threaten Washington.

  • Coastal defense:

    • Army forts and new naval weapons systems.

  • Blockade-running:

    • Attempt to continue commercial trade with Europe.

    • Operations hurt by Southerners’ desires for luxury goods.

      • Union blockade’s increasing effectiveness increases profits.

  • Commerce raiding:

    • Successful cruises divert Union ships from blockade duty.

    • Privateers (1861):

      • Declaration of Paris - 1856.

      • Unable to secure prize courts (sovereignty problems).


Naval administration in the north

Naval Administration in the North

  • Union Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles

  • Rapid and massive ship-building program.

    • Only 42 ships at the beginning of the war.

    • 264 commissioned by December, 1861

  • Convened Ironclad Board, August 1861, to combat Virginia


Union secretary of the navy gideon welles

UnionSecretaryof theNavyGideon Welles


Naval administration in the south

Naval Administration in the South

  • Confederate Secretary of the Navy Stephen Mallory

  • Confederacy issues letters of marquee to privateers.

  • Attempts to use new technology to gain advantage.

    • Conversion of older ships to armored “ironclads”.

    • Re-emergence of the ram as a naval weapon.


Naval administration in the south cont d

Naval Administration in the South (cont’d)

  • James Bulloch attempts to gain British aid.

  • Coordinates construction of warships in Great Britain.

    • Questions of legality for a neutral power (Great Britain)

  • Antietam (September 1862), Emancipation Proclamation, and Union protests end aid.


Confederate secretary of the navy stephen mallory

THE BATTLE OF THE MALLORYS

ConfederateSecretaryof theNavyStephen Mallory

MidshipmanFourth ClassPhilip Mallory


Sea power and maritime affairs

Naval Operations and Important Battles


Early naval operations

Early Naval Operations

  • Norfolk Navy Yard

    • Largest naval base and arsenal in the United States.

    • Captured by Confederate forces on 21 April.

    • USS Merrimack scuttled by retreating Union forces.

    • Large number of guns captured by Confederates.

  • Union blockade of the Confederacy:

    • “Paper Blockade” needs to become real as soon as possible.

    • Forward bases required for an effective blockade.

    • Amphibious operations launched to seize bases in the South.


Battle of port royal

Battle of Port Royal

  • Attempt to establish first Union base on Confederate territory at Port Royal Sound -- 7 November 1861.

  • Commodore Stephen F. DuPont

  • Superior naval gunfire:

    • Directed against Confederate forts defending the Sound.

    • Confederates abandon forts.

  • Union soldiers and Marines land unopposed.

  • Other Union amphibious operations will resemble Port Royal operation.


Sea power and maritime affairs

USS Port Royal


Battle of hampton roads

Battle of Hampton Roads

“The Monitor and the Merrimack”


Css virginia

CSS Virginia

  • USS Merrimack raised at Norfolk.

  • Iron armor and ram added by Confederate Navy.

  • Renamed Virginia and commanded by Franklin Buchanan.

  • Defeats conventional Union ships on 8 March 1862.


Sea power and maritime affairs

Franklin BuchananConfederate States NavyCommanding OfficerofCSS Virginiaat theBattle of Hampton Roads.


Uss monitor

USS Monitor

  • Welles’ Ironclad Board

  • John Ericcson’s Monitor

    • Highly armored with low freeboard.

    • Single turret mounting two Dahlgren guns.

  • Moved to Norfolk area to engage Virginia.

  • Pounded each other for four hours

  • Tactical draw but a strategic Union victory - Confederate Navy unable to break the blockade of Norfolk.


Uss monitor1

USS Monitor


Uss monitor versus css virginia

USS Monitor versus CSS Virginia

9 March 1862


John ericcson

John Ericcson

“Monitor” design is improved and used to produce large numbers of ships for the Union Navy necessary for the assault of Confederate coasts and ports.


Three theaters

Three Theaters

Great Inland Rivers

Mississippi River Basin

Vicksburg

Mobile Bay

Atlantic and Gulf Coasts

Fort Fisher

Blue Water

CSS Alabama


Inland river campaigns

Inland River Campaigns

  • Combined Union Army - Navy offensives

    • Goal: Control of the Mississippi River

  • Navy gunboats and transports used to support Army

    • Union forces advance down Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers to the Mississippi


Capture of new orleans

Capture of New Orleans

  • Flag Officer David G. Farragut commanding

    • Commander David Dixon Porter

  • Tried to mortar bomb Fort Jackson and St. Philip into submission

    • knocked a hole in the wall

  • Farragut charged through and took the city

  • Congress makes him an Admiral


Mortar boats

Mortar Boats


Siege of vicksburg

Vicksburg the big obstacle to dominance of the Mississippi

Porter ferried Grant’s troops across to the east bank of the river, south of the fort

Grant takes the fort from the rear

Surrender on 4 July 1863

Naval support: gunfire, troop transport, and logistical reinforcement

Siege of Vicksburg


Siege of vicksburg1

Siege of Vicksburg


David dixon porter

David Dixon Porter

Siege of Vicksburg


Battle of mobile bay

Battle of Mobile Bay

  • Union fleet commanded by David Glasgow Farragut.

  • Confederate fleet commanded by Franklin Buchanan.

  • Entrance to Mobile Bay heavily defended.

    • Torpedo buoys placed in entrance to the Bay.

    • Guns of Fort Morgan defend only open channel.

  • Union fleet outnumbers and outguns the Confederate fleet waiting in Mobile Bay.

  • Farragut positions “monitors” between the rest of his fleet and Fort Morgan.

  • Brooklyn’s captain stops and blocks the channel.

  • “Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead!”


Torpedo

Torpedo

  • Wooden keg filled with black powder with a contact fuse anchored in port channels.


David glasgow farragut

“Damn the torpedoes, full speed ahead!”

Battle

of

Mobile Bay

DavidGlasgowFarragut


Battle of mobile bay1

Battle of Mobile Bay

5 August 1864


Fort fisher

Fort Fisher

  • The seaward protector of Wilmington, NC

    • railhead to Richmond supplies Lee’s Army

  • Highly-defended by Confederate guns.


Fort fisher1

Fort Fisher

  • Combined Union Army-Navy operation.

    • Union fleet commanded by David Dixon Porter.

  • First assault fails - Christmas 1864.

  • Second Assault

    • Sailors and Marines attack the fort with Army forces.

  • Only successful amphibious assault against a heavily defended fort.

    • Heavy, constant, targeted naval gunfire necessary for success.


Confederate commerce raiders

Confederate Commerce Raiders

  • Highly successful in the disruption of Union maritime commerce.

  • Captain Raphael Semmes

    • CSS Sumter

    • CSS Alabama

      • Captures 68 Union vessels.

      • Sunk at Cherbourg, France in duel with USS Kearsarge.


Captain raphael semmes

CaptainRaphael Semmes

CSS Alabama


Css alabama commerce raiding route

CSS Alabama- Commerce Raiding Route


Css alabama

CSS Alabama


Sea power and maritime affairs

Raphael Semmes


Tactical trends in the civil war

Tactical Trends in the Civil War

  • Introduction of “ironclads”:

    • Strengths: Heavily armored for coastal assault.

    • Weaknesses: Low mobility on the open ocean.

  • Question of a fleet's ability to suppress coastal fortifications unanswered.

  • Appreciation for combined (Army-Navy) operations.

    • Proper planning and coordination essential for success.


Sea power and maritime affairs

Overall Technological Advances


Technological innovation

Technological Innovation

  • North — Monitor Class

    • Combination of steam, screw, armor, and a gun turret.

    • Large numbers built.

    • “Dahlgren Guns” effective at close range.

    • Gives Union Navy the advantage on coastal and inland waterways.

  • South

    • CSS Virginia -- Steam power and iron armor.

    • The “Davids”

    • CSS Hunley - submarine.

    • “Torpedoes”

    • “Laird” rams.


Css hunley

CSS Hunley


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Decline of U.S. Merchant Marines due in large to the obsolescent sailing vessels used.

  • Northern success in application of British-like offensive naval warfare PLUS

    Failure of Southern commerce raiding to win the war at sea = QUESTION:

    • Will American naval officers still regard commerce raiding as the proper strategy in time of war ???????

  • The “Alabama Claims” cause a lasting diplomatic debate with Great Britain.


Conclusions1

Conclusions

  • Union blockade sets a precedent that that Woodrow Wilson finds inconvenient in 1914-1917.

  • Joint Navy-Army Operations reach an unprecedented level of high efficiency on the Mississippi River.

  • Joint Ops reach high point in the second amphib landing at Fort Fisher, North Carolina, closing down the confederacy’s last open port supporting R. E. Lee’s Army.


Learning objectives1

Learning Objectives

  • Comprehend the role of the Union Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Confederacy.

  • Comprehend the role of the Confederate Navy in the strategy for the defeat of the Union.

  • Know the reasons for vital importance of acquisition of European allies in the South’s Naval Strategy.

  • Know the innovations in naval weapons and technology that emerged during the Civil War.


Discussion

Discussion

Next Time:Developments of Naval Technology and their Impact on Strategy


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