朱熹与理学
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朱熹与理学.  朱熹( xī )( 1130-1200 年)中国 南宋 著名思想家。字元晦,后改仲晦,号晦庵。别号紫阳,祖籍 徽州 婺源(今属 江西 ),汉族. 朱熹是宋代 理学 的集大成者,他继承了北宋 程颢 、 程颐 的理学,完成了客观唯心主义的体系。认为理是世界的本质,“理在先,气在后”,提出“存天理,灭人欲”。朱熹学识渊博,对经学 、史学、文学、乐律乃至自然科学都有研究。其词作语言秀正,风格俊朗,无浓艳或典故堆砌之病。. 朱熹. ● 大凡敦厚忠信,能攻吾过者,益友也;其诌媚轻薄,傲慢亵狎,导人为恶者,损友也。 类别 : 友谊

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 朱熹(xī )(1130-1200年)中国南宋著名思想家。字元晦,后改仲晦,号晦庵。别号紫阳,祖籍徽州婺源(今属江西),汉族

朱熹是宋代理学的集大成者,他继承了北宋程颢、程颐的理学,完成了客观唯心主义的体系。认为理是世界的本质,“理在先,气在后”,提出“存天理,灭人欲”。朱熹学识渊博,对经学 、史学、文学、乐律乃至自然科学都有研究。其词作语言秀正,风格俊朗,无浓艳或典故堆砌之病。

朱熹


大凡敦厚忠信,能攻吾过者,益友也;其诌媚轻薄,傲慢亵狎,导人为恶者,损友也。 类别:友谊

●守正直而佩仁义。宋·朱熹《宋名臣言行录》 宋:操守。做人要正直之心,行仁义之德。 类别:道德

●涵养、致知、力行三者,便是以涵养为首,致知次之,力行又次之。 类别:道德

●读书有三到,谓心到,眼到,口到。 类别:读书

●思诚为修身之本,而明善又为思诚之本。类别:修养

●自敬,则人敬之;自慢,则人慢之。 类别:修养

●人光明磊落便是好人。类别:道德


朱子家训

  •   君之所贵者,仁也。臣之所贵者,忠也。

  •   父之所贵者,慈也。子之所贵者,孝也。

  •   兄之所贵者,友也。弟之所贵者,恭也。

  •   夫之所贵者,和也。妇之所贵者,柔也。

  •   事师长贵乎礼也,交朋友贵乎信也。

  •   见老者,敬之;见幼者,爱之。有德者,年虽下于我,我必尊之;不肖者,年虽高于我,我必远之。

  •   慎勿谈人之短,切莫矜己之长。仇者以义解之,怨者以直报之,随所遇而安之。


朱子家训

  •  人有小过,含容而忍之;人有大过,以理而谕之。勿以善小而不为,勿以恶小而为之。

  •   人有恶,则掩之;人有善,则扬之。处世无私仇,治家无私法。

  •   勿损人而利己,勿妒贤而嫉能。勿称忿而报横逆,勿非礼而害物命。

  •   见不义之财勿取,遇合理之事则从。

  •   诗书不可不读,礼义不可不知。子孙不可不教,童仆不可不恤。

  •   斯文不可不敬,患难不可不扶。守我之分者,礼也;听我之命者,天也。人能如是,天必相之。

  •   此乃日用常行之道,若衣服之于身体,饮食之于口腹,不可一日无也,可不慎哉!


朱熹诗作

观书有感二首

半亩方塘一鉴开,

 天光云影共徘徊。

 问渠那得清如许,

 为有源头活水来。

 昨夜江头春水生,

 蒙冲巨舰一毛轻。

 向来枉费推移力,

 此日中流自在行。


秋 月

清流溪过碧山头,

空水澄鲜一色秋。

隔断红尘三十里,

白云黄叶两悠悠。

春 日

 胜日寻芳泗水滨,

无边光景一时新。

 等闲识得东风面,

万紫千红总是春。

朱熹诗作


朱子治家格言之一

  • 刻薄成家,理无久享;伦常乖舛,立见消亡。

  • 见富贵而生谄容者最可耻,遇贫穷而作骄态者贱莫甚。

  • ·乖僻自是,悔误必多;颓惰自甘,家道难成。

  • 轻听发言,安知非人之谮诉?当忍耐三思;因事相争,焉知非我之不是?需平心暗想。


朱子治家格言之二

  • 施惠无念,受恩莫忘。

  • 人有喜庆,不可生妒忌心;人有祸患,不可生喜幸心。

  • 善欲人见,不是真善;恶恐人知,便是大恶

  • 守分安命,顺时听天。


孙子兵法

  • 《孙子兵法》又称《孙武兵法》、《吴孙子兵法》、《孙子兵书》、《孙武兵书》等,是中国古典军事文化遗产中的璀璨瑰宝,是中国优秀文化传统的重要组成部分。其内容博大精深,思想精邃富赡,逻辑缜密严谨。作者为春秋末年的齐国人孙武(字长卿)。一般认为,《孙子兵法》成书于专诸刺吴王僚之后至阖闾三年孙武见吴王之间,也即前515至前512年。全书分为十三篇,是孙武初次见面赠送给吴王的见面礼,事见司马迁《史记》:“孙子武者,齐人也,以兵法见吴王阖闾。阖闾曰:子之十三篇吾尽观之矣。”有用兵如《孙子》,策谋《三十六计》的说法。

  • 《孙子兵法》成书于春秋末期,是我国古代流传下来的最早、最完整、最著名的军事著作,在中国军事史上占有重要的地位,其军事思想对中国历代军事家、政治家、思想家产生非常深远的影响,其已被译成日、英、法、德、俄等十几种文字,在世界各地广为流传,享有“兵学圣典”的美誉。



孙子兵法》

谋攻篇

Attack by stratagem

周健纯 陈静华

林穗 陈苗玲 王丽雯


孙子曰:夫用兵之法,全国为上,破国次之;全军为上,破军次之;全旅为上,破旅次之;全卒 为上,破卒次之;全伍为上,破伍次之。是故百战百胜,非善之善也;不战而屈人之兵,善之善者也。

Sun Tzu said: In the practical art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy's country whole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not so good. So, too, it is better to recapture an army entire than to destroy it, to capture a regiment, a detachment or a company entire than to destroy them. Hence to fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence consists in breaking the enemy's resistance without fighting.


Thus the highest form of generalship is to balk the enemy's plans; the next best is to prevent the junction of the enemy's forces; the next in order is to attack the enemy's army in the field; and the worst policy of all is to besiege walled cities.

故上兵伐谋,其次伐交,其次伐兵,其下攻城。


夫将者,国之辅也。辅周则国必强,辅隙则国必弱。夫将者,国之辅也。辅周则国必强,辅隙则国必弱。

Now the general is the bulwark of the State; if the bulwark is complete at all points; the State will be strong; if the bulwark is defective, the State will be weak


故君之所以患于军者三:不知军之不可以进而谓之进,不知军之不可以退而谓之退,是谓縻军;不知三军之事而同三军之政,则军士惑矣;故君之所以患于军者三:不知军之不可以进而谓之进,不知军之不可以退而谓之退,是谓縻军;不知三军之事而同三军之政,则军士惑矣;

There are three ways in which a ruler can bring misfortune upon his army:(1) By commanding the army to advance or to retreat, being ignorant of the fact that it cannot obey. This is called hobbling the army.

(2) By attempting to govern an army in the same way as he administers a kingdom, being ignorant of the conditions which obtain in an army. This causes restlessness in the soldier's minds.


孙子兵法之作战篇故君之所以患于军者三:不知军之不可以进而谓之进,不知军之不可以退而谓之退,是谓縻军;不知三军之事而同三军之政,则军士惑矣;


孙武,春秋末期兵家代表人物,字长卿,齐国人孙武,春秋末期兵家代表人物,字长卿,齐国人

  • 孙子曰:凡用兵之法,驰车千驷,革车千乘,带甲十万,千里馈粮。则内外之费,宾客之用,胶 漆之材,车甲之奉,日费千金,然后十万之师举矣。

  • (中文译文:孙子说:要兴兵作战,需做的物资准备有,轻车千辆,重车千辆,全副武装的士兵十万,并向千里之外运送粮食。那么前后方的军内外开支,招待使节、策士的用度,用于武器维修的胶漆等材料费用,保养战车、甲胄的支出等,每天要消耗千金。按照这样的标准准备之后,十万大军才可出发上战场)

  • Sun Tzu said: In the operations of war, where there are a thousand swift chariots in the field, as many heavy chariots, and a hundred thousand mail-clad soldiers, with provisions enough to carry them a thousand li (500 kilometers), the expenditure that used at home and at the front, including entertainment of guests, small items such as glue and paint, and sums spent on chariots and armor, will reach the total of a thousand ounces of silver per day. This is the cost of raising an army of 100,000 men.


其用战也,胜久则钝兵挫锐,攻城则力屈,久暴师则国用不足。其用战也,胜久则钝兵挫锐,攻城则力屈,久暴师则国用不足。

(因此,军队作战就要求速胜,如果拖的很久则军队必然疲惫,挫失锐气。一旦攻城,则兵力将耗尽,长期在外作战还必然导致国家财用不足。)

When you engage in actual fighting, if victory is long in coming, then men's weapons will grow dull and their ardor will be damped. If you besiege a town, you will exhaust your strength. If the campaign is protracted, the resources of the state will not be equal to the strain.


山东滨州孙子兵法城内的其用战也,胜久则钝兵挫锐,攻城则力屈,久暴师则国用不足。“天下第一剑”。两把剑交叉立于地面是来表现停战止战的意思,寓意和平。

  • 善用兵者,役不再籍,粮不三载,

  • (善于用兵的人,不用再次征集兵员,不用多次运送军粮)

  • The skillful soldier does not raise a second levy, neither are his supply-wagons loaded more than twice.

  • 取用于国,因粮于敌,故军食可足也。

  • (武器装备由国内供应,从敌人那里设法夺取粮食,这样军队的粮草就可以充足了。)

  • Bring war material with you from home, but forage on the enemy. Thus the army will have food enough for its needs.

  • 国之贫于师者远输,远输则百姓贫;

  • (国家之所以因作战而贫困,是由于军队远征,不得不进行长途运输。长途运输必然导致百姓贫穷。)

  • Poverty of the state exchequer causes an army to be maintained by contributions from a distance. Contributing to maintain an army at a distance causes the people to be impoverished.


孙子兵法城内的铜车马其用战也,胜久则钝兵挫锐,攻城则力屈,久暴师则国用不足。

  • 近师者贵卖,贵卖则百姓财竭,财竭则急于丘役。

  • (驻军附近处物价必然飞涨,物价飞涨,必然导致物资枯竭,物财枯竭,赋税和劳役必然加重。)

  • The proximity of an army causes prices to go up,and high prices cause the people's substance to be drained away. When their substance is drained away, the peasantry will be afflicted by heavy exactions.


坐落于山东惠民孙子兵法城的巨型石刻对弈棋盘坐落于山东惠民孙子兵法城的巨型石刻对弈棋盘

  • 故智将务食于敌,食敌一钟,当吾二十钟;杆一石,当吾二十石。

  • (.所以明智的将军,一定要在敌国解决粮草,从敌国搞到一钟的粮食,就相当于从本国启运时的二十钟,在当地取得饲料一石,相当于从本国启运时的二十石。 Hence a wise general makes a point of foraging on the enemy. One cartload of the enemy's provisions is equivalent to twenty of one's own, and likewise a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty from one's own store.

  • 故杀敌者,怒也;取敌之利者,货也。

  • (所以,要使士兵拼死杀敌,就必须怒之,激励之。要使士兵勇于夺取敌方的军需物资,就必须以缴获的财物作奖赏。)

  • In order to kill the enemy, our men must be roused to anger; there may be advantage from defeating the enemy, they must have their rewards.


孙子兵法之兵势篇坐落于山东惠民孙子兵法城的巨型石刻对弈棋盘


孙子兵法之行篇坐落于山东惠民孙子兵法城的巨型石刻对弈棋盘


本篇篇题,坐落于山东惠民孙子兵法城的巨型石刻对弈棋盘《武经》各本“形”上皆有“军”字,《十家注》各本则无。简本亦只作“刑(形)" 。曹注“军之形也”,亦显系释“形”之义,是其所据本亦无“军”字,如所据本已作“军形”,则何劳曹公再特以加注曰“军之形”耶?故当仍依简本与《十家注》无“军”字。 “形”,军形,在一般意义上,是指兵力部署所展现于外部的表象,而这种表象,对于敌人来说,则往往是虚假的,而自己的真形却往往被掩盖着,即所谓“形人而我无形”。但本篇却不是讲如何“形人”和如何使我“无形”的问题,而是讲作为“形”之内涵的“强弱”问题。孙子在下篇曾明确指出:“强弱,形也。”本篇也并非泛论“强弱”,而是集中论述具有“强”形之兵,也即所谓“胜兵”的形成问题,也就是优势的形成问题。处于优势地位的“胜兵”,就像“决积水于千仞之?" ,总是“战胜不忒”,能够“自保而全胜”。如何才能形成这样的“胜兵”呢?孙子指出:(一)“修道而保法”,从政治上加以保证;(二)要在实力上处于“以镒称铢”的优势地位;(三)要善于掌握运用攻守策略,既能“藏于九地之下”,也能“动于九天之上”。总之,必须在政治上、经济上和军事上“先为不可胜”,首先在战略上“立于不败之地”,然后再去“求战”,再去“待敌之可胜。


孙子曰:昔之善战者,先为不可胜,以待敌之可胜。 Sun Tzu said: The good fighters of old first put themselves beyond the possibility of defeat, and then waited for an opportunity of defeating the enemy.

不可胜在己,可胜在敌。 To secure ourselves against defeat lies in our own hands, but the opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself.


善守者藏于九地之下,善攻者动于九天之上,故能自保而全胜也。 The general who is skilled in defense hides in the most secret recesses of the earth; he who is skilled in attack flashes forth from the topmost heights of heaven. Thus on the one hand we have ability to protect ourselves; on the other, a victory that is complete.

见胜不过众人之所知,非善之善者也; To see victory only when it is within the ken of the common herd is not the acme of excellence.


战胜而天下曰善,非善之善者也。 Neither is it the acme of excellence if you fight and conquer and the whole Empire says, "Well done!"

故举秋毫不为多力,见日月不为明目,闻雷霆不为聪耳。 To lift an autumn hair is no sign of great strength; to see the sun and moon is no sign of sharp sight; to hear the noise of thunder is no sign of a quickear.



虚实篇

“观诸兵书,无出孙武:孙武十三篇,无出《虚实》夫用兵识虚实之势,则无不胜焉。”

——《唐太宗李卫公问对》


  • 虚”即空虚,指兵力分散而薄弱;“实”即充实,指兵力集中而强大。

  • “虚实”的核心宗旨,就是积极夺取作战的主动权,创造条件,争取优势,主动灵活地打击敌人。


故善战者,致人而不致于人

孙子曰:凡先处战地而待敌者佚,后处战地而趋战者劳。故善战者,致人而不致于人。

译注:凡先到战场等待敌人的人就安逸(主动),后到达战场仓促应战的就疲劳(被动)。所以善于指挥作战的人,总是能够调支敌人而不被敌人所牵制。


在战争中,最重要的一点便是掌握战斗的主动权。没有主动权,便会陷入被动消极防御甚至处处挨打的境地。克敌制胜的关键是主动,它贯穿了整个战争的全部过程。


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