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Practical Applications for Environment and Agriculture in Rural Africa. Session 4: GNSS implementation and uses in agriculture and environment United Nations/Zambia/ESA Regional Workshop on the Applications of Global Navigation Satellite System Technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa

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Practical applications for environment and agriculture in rural africa

Practical Applications for Environment and Agriculture in Rural Africa

Session 4: GNSS implementation and uses in agriculture and environment

United Nations/Zambia/ESA Regional Workshop on

the Applications of Global Navigation Satellite System Technologies

in Sub-Saharan Africa

26 June 2006, Lusaka, Zambia

Presented on behalf of :

Dave Doyle, Chief Geodetic Surveyor

DOC National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Ocean Service

National Geodetic Survey

&

Michael Rasher, National GPS CoordinatorUSDA Natural Resources Conservation Service

National Cartography & Geospatial Centerby

Ken Alexander

Senior AdvisorNational Space-Based PNT Coordination Office


Geodetic control
Geodetic Control Rural Africa

  • Network of monumented points

  • Precisely measured in accordance with standard procedures

  • Meets accuracy specifications

  • Adjusted to tie together and documented for multiple uses


Stainless steel rod Rural Africa

driven to refusal

Poured in place

concrete post


Spatial data accuracy
Spatial Data Accuracy Rural Africa

  • Accuracy crucial to building useful Geodetic Information Systems (GISs)

  • GIS builders and users must understand:

    • Impact of data accuracy

    • Details of spatial data accuracy

    • Spatial data accuracy needs

  • Surveying and mapping professionals should:

    • Understand accuracy needs of users

    • Be involved in data design and collection

 2000


Why high accuracy
Why High Accuracy Rural Africa

  • Realistic, useable representation of data

    • For local government, facilities management, utility and other applications

  • Large scale applications can be conducted

  • Maps and decision making information reliable

  • Data can be aligned and easily integrated

  • Survey data and GPS data can be input directly

  • High accuracy data saves expense for many operations

 2000


Misperceptions about accuracy
Misperceptions about Accuracy Rural Africa

  • Assumptions:

    • It will take care of itself

    • We’ll work on it later

    • The maps look good

    • The maps look accurate

    • We don’t really need that much accuracy

    • What we have is good enough

    • Just load whatever data we can get

    • It’s too expensive

  • Too little attention and understanding

 2000


Results of inadequate data accuracy
Results of Inadequate Data Accuracy Rural Africa

  • Data mismatches, inconsistencies, lack of registration

  • Confusion

  • Battling basemaps

  • Wasted resources

  • Decisions based on “bad” data

  • Decisions based on in appropriate data

  • Lawsuits

  • Failed projects

 2000


Autonomous positioning before may 1 2000
Autonomous Positioning: Rural AfricaBefore May 1, 2000

  • L1C/A Code

  • Selective Availability On

25 - 100 m

Worst Case Horizontal 100 m

1996 Federal Radionavigation Plan

Section A2-1, Part B

http://www.navcen.uscg.mil/policy/frp1996


Standalone positioning today
Standalone Positioning Today Rural Africa

  • L1C/A Code

  • No Selective Availability

  • Accuracy Improvement Initiative

~ 4 - 6 m


Unaugmented positioning next decade
Unaugmented Positioning: next decade Rural Africa

Improved resistance to interference and availability

~ 1 – 3 m

Standalone GPS, Galileo, GLONASS

Combined constellations to provide modest accuracy improvements?


Achieving accurate gis
Achieving Accurate GIS Rural Africa

  • GIS needs: resource (survey) grade GPS

    • Accuracy ~ one foot

  • GPS data can be used to adjust other data

    • Can be used for survey control

  • GPS = Accuracy


Resource grade gps positioning
Resource grade GPS Positioning: Rural Africa

~ 1 foot


Large area high accuracy differential reference system
Large Area High Accuracy Differential Reference System Rural Africa

  • ACCURATE: cm accuracy on a global scale

  • MULTIPURPOSE: Best Support for: Geodesy, Geophysics, Surveying, Navigation, Mapping, Charting and other GIS activities

  • ACTIVE: Accessible through Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) and other post processed (derived) products

  • INTEGRATED -- Support International services and standards (e.g. International Earth Rotation Service, International GPS Service etc.)


Continuously operating reference stations cors
Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) Rural Africa

Installed and operated by diverse, Federal, State, International and local Agencies

  • NOAA/National Geodetic Survey

  • NOAA/OAR Forecast Systems Lab

  • U.S. Coast Guard - DGPS/NDGPS

  • Corps of Engineers - DGPS

  • FAA - WAAS/LAAS (Future)

  • State DOTs

  • County and City

  • Academia

  • Private Companies


Continuously operating reference stations cors1
Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) Rural Africa

  • Variety of “Geodetic Quality” Dual-Frequency

  • Receivers and Antennas are available

  • Manufacturers include:

  • Allen-Osborne

    Ashtech/Thales

    Leica

  • Trimble


CORS Requirements Rural Africa

  • Receiver/Antenna at least dual frequency (L1 and L2)

  • Very stable mounting

  • Reliable power available

  • Provider has on-site Internet access

  • Secured location

  • Approximate cost ~ $30 – 50k each


Continuously operating reference stations cors2
Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) Rural Africa

  • International Terrestrial Reference Plane Coordinates

  • Network data collection - Hourly & Daily

  • Daily 3D Network Integrity Adjustment

  • Public Data Distribution - Internet

  • (http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/CORS/cors-data.html)

  • 11 Year

  • NGS Provides:

  • Global On-Line Data Holding


International GNSS Service Rural Africa

Tracking Network


Not Operational Rural Africa


What is opus
What is OPUS? Rural Africa

  • NGS On-Line Positioning User Service

  • Processes GPS data

  • Global availability (masked)

  • 3 goals:

    • Simplicity

    • Consistency

    • Reliability


Http www ngs noaa gov opus

You’ve got mail! Rural Africa

OPUS solution

http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/OPUS



Locating and Recording Natural and Cultural Features for Local and Regional Planning

Village in Ghana


Wild Fruit Local and Regional Planning Burkina Faso

Processing Mango Guinea

Food Security and Reforestation

Improved Granary Uganda

Children Planting Trees Ghana


Purifying Water Local and Regional Planning Cameroon

Pond Construction Cameroon

Developing, Protecting, and Ensuring Water Supplies

Solar Panels for Water Pumps Niger

Dam ImprovementMadagascar




“We must feed our people, have safe drinking water, treat the ill ...transportation, exports and other things will come in time. “

Global Positioning System

Practical Applications for Agriculture and Environment in Rural Africa


At the end of the Day… the ill ...transportation, exports and other things will come in time.

Change can occur with GPS

Sunset in Zambia


Contact information

Ken Alexander, Senior Advisor the ill ...transportation, exports and other things will come in time.

National Space-Based PNT Coordination Office

Herbert C. Hoover Bldg., Rm. 6822

1401 Constitution Avenue, NW

Washington, D.C. 20230

Ph: (202) 482-5809

Fax: (202) 482-4429

[email protected]

Presentation available: http://pnt.gov

Contact Information


Backup the ill ...transportation, exports and other things will come in time.


How does opus work
How Does OPUS Work? the ill ...transportation, exports and other things will come in time.

NGS-PAGES software used

3 “best” CORS selected3 separate baselines computed3 separate positions averaged


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