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Sex, Gender, and Gender Role Socialization. Chapter 3. Sex. Refers to the physical and biological Includes: Chromosomal xx and xy Hormonal Testosterone, Estrogen And…. Sex. Anatomical. Gender and Gender Identity. Gender : Social Psychological Cultural

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Sex, Gender, and Gender Role Socialization

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Sex, Gender, and Gender Role Socialization

Chapter 3


Sex

  • Refers to the physical and biological

  • Includes:

  • Chromosomal

    • xx and xy

  • Hormonal

    • Testosterone, Estrogen

    • And…


Sex

Anatomical


Gender and Gender Identity

  • Gender :

  • Social

  • Psychological

  • Cultural

    • Masculinity and Femininity

  • Gender identity :

    • View of herself or himself as:

    • Feminine or Masculine


Gender Characteristics

  • Sex—Ascribed status

  • Gender—Achieved status

  • Gender characteristics:

    • Physical

    • Emotional

    • Behavioral


Social Construction of Gender

  • Expectations regarding proper:

  • Behavior

  • Attitudes

  • Activities

  • Roles in work

  • Reaction to others

  • Little Girl comments on gender roles

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CU040Hqbas&feature=related

  • Gender Roles


Gender Role Socialization

  • “...a lifelong process people learn:

  • Values

  • Attitudes

  • Motivations

  • Behavior

  • Considered appropriate by their culture”


Gender Role Socialization

  • Children learn proper behavior

  • Parents/family

  • Peer groups

  • School

  • Media


9/19 Masculine Scripts

  • Man vs Woman

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P1ferw30pUo&feature=player_detailpage

  • No sissy-stuff – Distance themselves from the feminine

  • Big wheel-Occupationally and/or financially successful

  • Sturdy oak-Confident and self-reliant

  • Give ‘em hell-Do what is necessary to “make it”


Feminine Scripts

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iYhCn0jf46U

  • Dove Transformation

  • Attractive

  • Not too competitive

  • Good listener

  • Adaptable

  • Good mother

  • Put needs of others first

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wjg_pmdX8no&feature=related

  • Female to Male and Back Again


Pink& BlueTelling the Boys from the Girls

  • Smithsonian

  • http://www.smithsonianmag.com/multimedia/photos/?c=y&articleID=119483704&page=1


Theories on Gender Inequality

Functionalist Theory

Conflict Theory


Structural Functionalist Perspective

  • Parsons and Bales (1956):

  • Women--Expressive roles

  • Men--Instrumental roles


Structural Functionalist Perspective

  • Women give birth & nurse children

    • “Natural” to provide care

    • Prepare meals

    • Maintain home

  • Men

  • Financial support

  • Economically dominant roles in family

    • Budget

    • Spending Decisions

    • Bank Account


Structural Functionalist Perspective

  • Pre-industrial society=Gender based division of labor

  • Women nursed and cared for children

  • Men responsible for material needs

  • Industrialization—Traditional division of labor less functional

  • Belief system remains


Conflict Theory

  • Gender inequality=Power

  • Men dominate women

    • Economic

    • Political

    • Social resources

  • Powerful haveno incentive:

    • To give up power or

    • Share it


Conflict Theory

  • Continued Domination:

  • Requires belief system (ideology)

  • Supports gender inequality

  • Two beliefs

    • Women-Inferior outside the home

    • Women-More valuable in the home 


Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

  • Gender & gender roles learned through socialization (process)

  • Women socialized into Expressive roles

  • Men socialized into Instrumental roles


Symbolic Interactionist Perspective

Micro level behavior expressing & maintaining dominance (research)

  • Men more likely than women to:

    • Change topic of conversations

    • Ignore topics chosen by women

    • Minimize ideas of women

    • Interrupt women


Research

  • Rubin, Provenzano, and Luria, (1974)

  • First 24 hours after birth

  • Parents described girls & boys differently


Research

  • “Boy” babies described as:

    • Alert

    • Strong

    • Firm

  • “Girl” babies described as:

    • Less attentive

    • Weak

    • Fragile


Research

  • Jacklin (1984)

  • Boys given blocks & tools

  • Girls given dolls & easy-bake ovens

  • McHale et al., (1990)

  • Boys mow lawn

  • Girls do dishes & babysit


Other Influences on Gender Socialization

  • Peers

  • Schools

  • Mass Media

  • Religion


Media and Socialization

  • Typical day: 47% of babies & toddlers ages 0-1 watch TV or DVDs

  • Those who watch average nearly 2 hours (1:54)/day

  • Nearly 1 in 3 (30%) have TV in bedrooms

  • (Knowledge Networks survey of 1,384 parents of children ages 0 to 8 years old, May 27-June 15, 2011 )


Media and Socialization

  • Children ages 6-23 months (2005)

    • 19% TV in their bedrooms

  • Children ages 6-23 months (2011)

    • 29% TV in their bedrooms


Media and Socialization

  • Two-thirds (65%) of 0 to 8-year-olds watch TV at least once every day

    • 37% of 0-1 year-olds

    • 73% of 2- to 4-year-olds

    • 72% of 5- to 8-year-olds

    • What are they learning?


Media and Socialization

1. Learn about gender identity from news media?

2. Learn from video games?

3. Gender messages from movies?

What are the consequences?

Personally and Socially?


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