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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008). Chapter 5. Shelmerdine Chapter 5. Masculine and feminine nouns of the 2 nd declension The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3 rd principal part) Aspect in the indicative Word order

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c w shelmerdine introduction to greek 2 nd edition newburyport ma focus 2008

C.W. ShelmerdineIntroduction to Greek 2nd edition(Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008)

Chapter 5

shelmerdine chapter 5
Shelmerdine Chapter 5
  • Masculine and feminine nouns of the 2nd declension
  • The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3rd principal part)
  • Aspect in the indicative
  • Word order
  • The possessive genitive
shelmerdine chapter 51
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

1. Masculine and feminine nouns of the 2nd declension

  • This chapter introduces nouns of the 2nd declension. These nouns use endings similar to that of the masculine definite article. Hence λόγος“word”

singular

ὁλόγος

τοῦ λόγου

τῷλόγῳ

τὸνλόγον

λόγε

plural

οἱλόγοι

τῶνλόγων

τοῖςλόγοις

τοὺςλόγους

Voc. = nom.

shelmerdine chapter 52
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

1. Masculine and feminine nouns of the 2nd declension

  • Feminine nouns of the 2nd declension use exactly the same endings as masculine nouns. Hence νῆσος“island”

singular

ἡ νῆσος

τῆς νήσου

τῇνήσῳ

τὴννῆσον

νῆσε

plural

αἱνῆσοι

τῶννήσων

ταῖςνήσοις

τὰςνήσους

Voc. = nom.

shelmerdine chapter 53
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

1. Masculine and feminine nouns of the 2nd declension

  • Nouns of the 2nd declension follow the same rules for accent as nouns of the 1st declension. Accents are persistent and may begin on the antepenult, penult or ultima.
  • Like the nominative plural ending –αιin the 1st declension, the nominative plural ending –οιin the 2nd declension is considered short for purposes of accent, even though it is a diphthong.
shelmerdine chapter 54
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

Looking up a Greek noun

  • Recall that in a vocabulary, glossary, lexicon, or dictionary, a Greek noun is listed by its (1) nominative singular, (2) genitive singular ending, and (3) the nominative singular article.
    • τιμή, -ῆς, ἡ “honor”
    • χώρα, -ας, ἡ “country”
    • κριτής, -οῦ, ὁ “judge”
    • λόγος, -ου, ὁ “word”
    • νῆσος, -ου, ἡ “island”
shelmerdine chapter 55
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

Looking up a Greek noun

  • Learn and observe both case forms closely, to determine the declension and pattern of endings:
    • τιμή, -ῆς, ἡ“honor” 1st declension
    • χώρα, -ας, ἡ“country” 1st declension
    • κριτής, -οῦ, ὁ“judge” 1st declension
    • λόγος, -ου, ὁ“word” 2nd declension
    • νῆσος, -ου, ἡ“island” 2nd declension
shelmerdine chapter 56
Shelmerdine Chapter 5
  • Masculine and feminine nouns of the 2nd declension
  • The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3rd principal part)
  • Aspect in the indicative
  • Word order
  • The possessive genitive
shelmerdine chapter 5 parse parsing
Shelmerdine Chapter 5 parse/parsing
  • 1st, 2ndor 3RD PERSON
  • SINGULAR or PLURAL
  • PRESENT, IMPERFECT,AORIST, or FUTURE
  • INDICATIVE
  • ACTIVE
shelmerdine chapter 57
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

2. The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3rd principal part)

  • The aorist tense refers to a single past action. Think of it as action in the past that you see as a snapshot in your head.
  • Recall that the imperfect tense refers to ongoing or repeated past action. Think of it as action in the past that you see as a moving video in your head.
shelmerdine chapter 58
Imperfect

I was going

It was happening

They were running

Aorist

I went

It happened

They ran

Shelmerdine Chapter 5
shelmerdine chapter 59
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

2. The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3rd principal part)

  • The present, imperfect, and aorist tenses together make up about 90% of the verb forms in most ancient Greek texts.
shelmerdine chapter 510
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

2. The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3rd principal part)

  • Greek has two types of aorist
    • (1) “weak” (also called “1st”)
    • (2) “strong” (also called “2nd”)
  • Normally a verb has only one type and there is no difference between the two types.
  • In this chapter, we learn only the weak (1st) aorist.
shelmerdine chapter 511
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

2. The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3rd principal part)

  • Like the imperfect (and like any secondary tense in the indicative mood) the aorist adds an augment to the beginning of the stem.
    • This augment appears as an ἐ- attached to the beginning of the stem
  • Like the future, the weak (1st) aorist adds a σto the end of the stem.
  • aorist stem: ἐλυσ-
    • present: λυ-, future: λυσ-, imperfect: ἐλυ-
shelmerdine chapter 512
singular

-α (I)

-ας (you)

-ε (s/he, it)

plural

-αμεν (we)

-ατε (you, y’all)

-αν (they)

Shelmerdine Chapter 5

the endings for the weak (1st) aorist

(variation of secondary endings)

shelmerdine chapter 513
singular

λύω

λύεις

λύει

plural

λύομεν

λύετε

λύουσι

Shelmerdine Chapter 5

present tense

present stem = λυ

shelmerdine chapter 514
singular

λύσω

λύσεις

λύσει

plural

λύσομεν

λύσετε

λύσουσι

Shelmerdine Chapter 5

future stem = λυσ

Note the addition of the σto the stem.

shelmerdine chapter 515
singular

ἔλυον

ἔλυες

ἔλυε

plural

ἐλύομεν

ἐλύετε

ἔλυον

Shelmerdine Chapter 5

imperfect tense

stem = λυ

Note the addition of the augment.

shelmerdine chapter 516
singular

ἔλυσα

ἔλυσας

ἔλυσε

plural

ἐλύσαμεν

ἐλύσατε

ἔλυσαν

Shelmerdine Chapter 5

Weak (1st) aorist tense

stem = λυσ

Note the addition of both the augment

and the σto the stem.

shelmerdine chapter 517
Shelmerdine Chapter 5
  • Masculine and feminine nouns of the 2nd declension
  • The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3rd principal part)
  • Aspect in the indicative
  • Word order
  • The possessive genitive
shelmerdine chapter 518
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

3. Aspect in the indicative

  • The aorist tense refers to a single past action. Think of it as action in the past that you see as a snapshot in your head.
  • Recall that the imperfect tense refers to ongoing or repeated past action. Think of it as action in the past that you see as a moving video in your head.
shelmerdine chapter 519
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

Looking up a Greek verb

The 1st sg present indicative active is the first principal part of a verb

  • ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον lead, bring
  • γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα write
  • διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα pursue
  • λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα loose, set free
  • πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα persuade
  • πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα send
shelmerdine chapter 520
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

Looking up a Greek verb

The 1st sg future indicative active is the second principal part of a verb

  • ἄγω,ἄξω, ἤγαγον lead, bring
  • γράφω,γράψω, ἔγραψα write
  • διώκω,διώξω, ἐδίωξα pursue
  • λύω,λύσω, ἔλυσα loose, set free
  • πείθω,πείσω, ἔπεισα persuade
  • πέμπω,πέμψω, ἔπεμψα send
shelmerdine chapter 521
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

Looking up a Greek verb

The 1st sg aorist indicative active is the third principal part of a verb

  • ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον lead, bring
  • γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψαwrite
  • διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξαpursue
  • λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσαloose, set free
  • πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισαpersuade
  • πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψαsend
shelmerdine chapter 522
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

Looking up a Greek verb

A verb whose third principal part ends in -ον has a strong (2nd) aorist (see Chap. 11)

  • ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγονlead, bring
  • γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα write
  • διώκω, διώξω, ἐδίωξα pursue
  • λύω, λύσω, ἔλυσα loose, set free
  • πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα persuade
  • πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα send
shelmerdine chapter 523
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

Looking up a Greek verb

Remember the rules for adding a σ(cf. chart on Shelmerdine p.2):

  • γράφω (φ + σ = ψ)γράψω, ἔγραψα write
  • διώκω (κ + σ = ξ)διώξω, ἐδίωξα pursue
  • λύω,λύσω, ἔλυσα loose, set free
  • πείθω (θ + σ = σ)πείσω, ἔπεισαpersuade
  • πέμπω (π + σ = ψ)πέμψω, ἔπεμψα send
shelmerdine chapter 524
Shelmerdine Chapter 5
  • Masculine and feminine nouns of the 2nd declension
  • The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3rd principal part)
  • Aspect in the indicative
  • Word order
  • The possessive genitive
shelmerdine chapter 525
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

4. Word order

  • While often Greek follows English word order in putting the subject first, verb second, and objects following, this is a tendency and not a rule. Continuity and emphasis determine the first and last words of a sentence most often.
shelmerdine chapter 526
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

4. Word order

  • The most important word usually comes first, the second most important word last, and the remaining items in between.
  • Importance often depends on what someone has been talking about. Continuity is most important.
shelmerdine chapter 527
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

4. Word order

  • Consider the sentence
    • οἱ ποιηταὶ παρέχουσι τὴν τιμήν.
      • (“Poets provide honor.”)
  • If you have been talking about what poets do, you might keep “poets” first, to maintain continuity about them: “It’s poets who provide honor.”
shelmerdine chapter 528
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

4. Word order

  • Consider the sentence
    • τὴν τιμὴν οἱ ποιηταὶ παρέχουσιν.
      • (“Poets provide honor.”)
  • If you have been talking about what poets provide, however, you might put “honor” first, to highlight your new topic: “Honor is another thing poets provide.”
shelmerdine chapter 529
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

4. Word order

  • Consider the sentence
    • παρέχουσιν οἱ ποιηταὶτὴν τιμήν.
      • (“Poets provide honor.”)
  • If you have been talking about what poets do with honor, however, you might put “provide” first, to highlight the exact relationship and action: “What poets do is provide honor.”
shelmerdine chapter 530
Shelmerdine Chapter 5
  • Masculine and feminine nouns of the 2nd declension
  • The aorist active indicative of thematic verbs (3rd principal part)
  • Aspect in the indicative
  • Word order
  • The possessive genitive
shelmerdine chapter 531
Shelmerdine Chapter 5

5. The possessive genitive

  • A possessive or dependent genitive mustimmediately follow the article of the noun it depends upon.
    • ἡ τοῦ κριτοῦ οἰκία
      • The house of the judge = the judge’s house
    • or ἡοἰκία ἡ τοῦ κριτοῦ
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