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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Computer Forensics BACS 371' - metea

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Computer System Basics

- Number Systems
- Decimal (base 10)
- Binary (base 2)
- Octal (base 8)
- Hexadecimal (base 16)
- Conversions
- Little Endian vs. Big Endian
- Text Representation
- ASCII
- EBCDIC
- Unicode

Number Systems

- Decimal – base 10
- Binary – base 2
- Octal – base 8
- Hexadecimal – base 16

Decimal Number System

- Base 10
- Uses digits 0~9
- Based on powers of 10

3 * 105 = 300,000

2 * 104 = 20,000

7 * 103 = 7,000

1 * 102 = 100

9 * 101 = 90

4 * 100 = 4

-------------------------------

TOTAL = 327,194

Binary Number System

- Base 2
- Uses digits 0~1
- Based on powers of 2

1 * 25 = 32

1 * 24 = 16

0 * 23 = 0

1 * 22 = 4

0 * 21 = 0

1 * 20 = 1

-------------------------------

1101012 = 5310

Octal Number System

- Base 8
- Uses digits 0~7
- Based on powers of 8

7 * 84 = 28,672

0 * 83 = 0

2 * 82 = 128

6 * 81 = 48

5 * 80 = 5

-------------------------------

702658 = 28,85310

Hexadecimal Number System

- Base 16
- Uses digits 0~9 and A, B, C, D, E, F
- Based on powers of 16

3 * 165 = 3,145,728

F * 164 = 983,040

7 * 163 = 28,672

A * 162 = 2560

0 * 161 = 0

E * 160 = 14

-------------------------------

3F7A0E16 = 10,451,47010

Number System Representations

- Binary
- 01001101b
- 010011012
- Octal
- 115o – note: trailing charter is a lowercase ‘oh’
- 1158
- Hexadecimal
- 0x4D -- note: leading character is a zero
- 4Dh
- 4D16

Little Endian vs. Big Endian

http://www.noveltheory.com/TechPapers/endian.asp

Please read this.

Deals with the order that bytes are stored in Intel-based versus non Intel-based computers.

- Intel-based are normally PC-type computers
- Non Intel-based are normally mainframe computers
- Little Endian – stored left-to-right (Intel-based)
- Big Endian – stored right-to-left (mainframe)

Text Representations

- Text values stored in a computer can be in several formats
- ASCII
- EBCDIC
- Unicode

ASCII

- ASCII, pronounced "ask-key", is the common code for microcomputer equipment
- American Standard Code for Information Interchange
- Proposed by ANSI in 1963, and finalized in 1968
- The standard ASCII character set consists of 128 decimal numbers ranging from zero through 127 assigned to letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and the most common special characters
- The first 32 codes are reserved for “non-printing” or “control” characters – supported original teletype systems
- The Extended ASCII Character Set also consists of 128 decimal numbers and ranges from 128 through 255 representing additional special, mathematical, graphic, and foreign characters

Text <-> Binary Converters

- http://students.washington.edu/cwei/tools/binary.shtml
- http://www.sitinthecorner.com/binary/binary.php

TEXT

Hello World

BINARY

01001000 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111 00100000 01010111 01101111 01110010 01101100 01100100

Hex

48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 57 6F 72 6C 64

EBCDIC

- Extended Binary Code Decimal Interchange Code
- Originally used by IBM-based mainframes
- Totally different encoding scheme from ASCII and Unicode
- Still used, but not as prevalent as in the past

Unicode

- Character coding standard used in NTFS
- “Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language.” http://www.unicode.org
- Three varieties of Unicode Transformation Format
- UTF-8 – identical to ASCII for western languages
- UTF-16 – 16-bits per character
- UTF-32 – 32-bits per character

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