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Computer Forensics BACS 371PowerPoint Presentation

Computer Forensics BACS 371

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Computer System Basics

- Number Systems
- Decimal (base 10)
- Binary (base 2)
- Octal (base 8)
- Hexadecimal (base 16)
- Conversions
- Little Endian vs. Big Endian

- Text Representation
- ASCII
- EBCDIC
- Unicode

Number Systems

- Decimal – base 10
- Binary – base 2
- Octal – base 8
- Hexadecimal – base 16

Decimal Number System

- Base 10
- Uses digits 0~9
- Based on powers of 10

3 * 105 = 300,000

2 * 104 = 20,000

7 * 103 = 7,000

1 * 102 = 100

9 * 101 = 90

4 * 100 = 4

-------------------------------

TOTAL = 327,194

Binary Number System

- Base 2
- Uses digits 0~1
- Based on powers of 2

1 * 25 = 32

1 * 24 = 16

0 * 23 = 0

1 * 22 = 4

0 * 21 = 0

1 * 20 = 1

-------------------------------

1101012 = 5310

Octal Number System

- Base 8
- Uses digits 0~7
- Based on powers of 8

7 * 84 = 28,672

0 * 83 = 0

2 * 82 = 128

6 * 81 = 48

5 * 80 = 5

-------------------------------

702658 = 28,85310

Hexadecimal Number System

- Base 16
- Uses digits 0~9 and A, B, C, D, E, F
- Based on powers of 16

3 * 165 = 3,145,728

F * 164 = 983,040

7 * 163 = 28,672

A * 162 = 2560

0 * 161 = 0

E * 160 = 14

-------------------------------

3F7A0E16 = 10,451,47010

Number System Representations

- Binary
- 01001101b
- 010011012

- Octal
- 115o – note: trailing charter is a lowercase ‘oh’
- 1158

- Hexadecimal
- 0x4D -- note: leading character is a zero
- 4Dh
- 4D16

Little Endian vs. Big Endian

http://www.noveltheory.com/TechPapers/endian.asp

Please read this.

Deals with the order that bytes are stored in Intel-based versus non Intel-based computers.

- Intel-based are normally PC-type computers
- Non Intel-based are normally mainframe computers
- Little Endian – stored left-to-right (Intel-based)
- Big Endian – stored right-to-left (mainframe)

Text Representations

- Text values stored in a computer can be in several formats
- ASCII
- EBCDIC
- Unicode

ASCII

- ASCII, pronounced "ask-key", is the common code for microcomputer equipment
- American Standard Code for Information Interchange
- Proposed by ANSI in 1963, and finalized in 1968
- The standard ASCII character set consists of 128 decimal numbers ranging from zero through 127 assigned to letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and the most common special characters
- The first 32 codes are reserved for “non-printing” or “control” characters – supported original teletype systems
- The Extended ASCII Character Set also consists of 128 decimal numbers and ranges from 128 through 255 representing additional special, mathematical, graphic, and foreign characters

Text <-> Binary Converters

- http://students.washington.edu/cwei/tools/binary.shtml
- http://www.sitinthecorner.com/binary/binary.php
TEXT

Hello World

BINARY

01001000 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111 00100000 01010111 01101111 01110010 01101100 01100100

Hex

48 65 6C 6C 6F 20 57 6F 72 6C 64

WinHex View

EBCDIC

- Extended Binary Code Decimal Interchange Code
- Originally used by IBM-based mainframes
- Totally different encoding scheme from ASCII and Unicode
- Still used, but not as prevalent as in the past

Unicode

- Character coding standard used in NTFS
- “Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language.” http://www.unicode.org
- Three varieties of Unicode Transformation Format
- UTF-8 – identical to ASCII for western languages
- UTF-16 – 16-bits per character
- UTF-32 – 32-bits per character

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