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Mixtures & Solubility. Separating Mixtures. Some mixtures like soil and water (and sand and water) can be separated through a filter. Questions. 1. How can you tell the difference between a mixture and a compound? 2. Why do water and oil separate?

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Mixtures & Solubility

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Mixtures solubility l.jpg

Mixtures & Solubility


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Separating Mixtures

  • Some mixtures like soil and water (and sand and water) can be separated through a filter


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Questions

  • 1. How can you tell the difference between a mixture and a compound?

  • 2. Why do water and oil separate?

  • 3. Are the properties of a compound always the same? Are the properties of a mixture always the same?


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Solution

  • Homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances that are evenly distributed (one is dissolved in another)


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Solute

  • Substance being dissolved


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Solvent

  • Substance that dissolves other materials

  • Water is the universal solvent


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Questions- Name the solvent and the solute(s)

  • 1. Carbonated water

  • 2. lemonade

  • 3. Air (78% N, 21% O)

  • 4. Brass (60 % copper, 40 % zinc)


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Dissolving

  • The process of mixing a solute in a solvent

  • To make a solution, a solute must dissolve in a solvent.

  • The particles of the solvent must be able to separate the particles of the solute and occupy the intervening spaces.


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Dissolving

  • Polar solvent molecules can effectively separate the molecules of other polar substances. This happens when the positive end of a solvent molecule approaches the negative end of a solute molecule. A force of attraction then exists between the 2 molecules. The solute molecule is pulled into solution when the force overcomes the attractive force between the solute molecule and its neighboring solute molecule.


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Solubility

  • Is the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given volume of water at a given temperature

  • Soluble- can be dissolved in a particular solvent

  • Insoluble- does not dissolve in a particular solvent

  • Factors that effect solubility:

    • Nature of solute & solvent

    • Temperature

    • Pressure (for solids & liquids no effect, for gaseous solutes an increase in pressure increases solubility and a decrease in pressure decreases solubility)


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Rate of Solution

  • Measure of how fast a substance dissolves

  • Factors:

    • Size of particles (smaller particles dissolve faster)

    • Stirring

    • Amount of solute already dissolved

    • Temperature ( T for solid and liquid rate)


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Describing Solutions

  • Can contain various amounts of solute.

  • Dilute- solutions containing small amounts of solute (weak sweet tea)

  • Concentrated- large amounts of solute (sweet sweet tea)


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Saturated Solution

  • Solution that contains MAXIMUM amount of solute

  • For most solids & liquids, if you increase the temperature of the solvent you increase the solubility

  • Opposite for a GAS; Increase temperature of a gas & solubility decreases (some of gas escapes from solution)


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Unsaturated

  • A solution that has not reached the limit of solute that will dissolve in it


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Supersaturated

  • Contains more than standard amount of solute

  • Ex. Rain, fog, dew, frost, other precipitation- comes out of solution because there is too much!


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Alloy

  • Solution of two or more metals

  • 14 Karat gold is an alloy that contains 14 atoms of gold out of every 24 atoms in the solution made up of silver and gold.


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Suspension

  • A mixture in which the particles of one substance become scattered through another substance without dissolving

  • Ex. Salad dressing, blood, milk, whipped cream


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Apply what you have learned....

  • The dissolved oxygen content of water is very critical to marine life.

  • How well does oxygen dissolve in water when the temperature of water increases?

  • Relate this to “thermal pollution,” a serious concern near power plants and other industries that release heated water into streams and rivers.


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Question

  • What is the difference between melting and dissolving????


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Link to Medicine-Perfluorocarbons

  • O2 not very soluble in water but very soluble in perfluorocarbons (20 % more than we breathe)

  • Researchers have found premature infants can breathe oxygen generated perfluorocarbons effectively

  • Adults benefit too! Cleans the lungs

  • Possible blood substitute?


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