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Reframing Organizations , 4 th ed. Chapter 16. Reframing in Action – Opportunities and Perils. Reframing in Action – Opportunities and Perils. Cindy Marshall: new manager with a big challenge Structural Scenario Human Resource Scenario Political Scenario Symbolic Scenario

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chapter 16

Chapter 16

Reframing in Action – Opportunities and Perils

reframing in action opportunities and perils
Reframing in Action – Opportunities and Perils
  • Cindy Marshall: new manager with a big challenge
  • Structural Scenario
  • Human Resource Scenario
  • Political Scenario
  • Symbolic Scenario
  • Benefits and Risks of Reframing
  • Reframing for Newcomers and Outsiders
cindy marshall
Cindy Marshall
  • New manager with big challenge
    • High risk dilemma: looking weak vs. acting impetuously
  • Each frame suggests distinct possibilities
    • Reframing as tool for generating options
  • Scenarios: story-lines for generating options for action
    • Each frame can be effective or not, depending on skill and insight of individual
structural scenario
Structural Scenario
  • Clarify goals
  • Attend to relationships between structure and environment
  • Design and implement structure to fit circumstances
  • Focus on task, facts, logic, not personality or emotion
human resource scenario
Human Resource Scenario
  • People are at the heart of organization
    • Respond to their needs and goals, and they’ll be committed and loyal in return
  • Align needs of individuals and organization, serving best interests of both
  • Support and empower people
    • Show concern, listen to their aspirations
    • Communicate warmth and concern
  • Empower through participation and openness
    • Give people resources and autonomy they need to do their jobs
political scenario
Political Scenario
  • Recognize political reality, deal with conflict
    • Scarce resources produce conflict over who gets what
  • Know the players (individuals and interest groups) and what they want
    • Build ties to key players and group leaders
  • Build a power base and use power carefully
    • Overplaying your hand makes you weaker
  • Create arenas for negotiation and compromise
  • Look for and emphasize common interests to unify your group
    • Rally troops against outside enemies
symbolic scenario
Symbolic Scenario
  • Most important part of leader’s job is inspiration
    • Give people something to believe in
    • People get excited about a special place with unique identity where their work is important
  • Be passionate about making organization the best of its kind, communicate your passion
    • Use dramatic, visible symbols to involve people, communicate the mission
    • Be visible, energetic
    • Create slogans, hold rallies and celebrations, give awards, manage by walking around
  • Study and use organizational culture
    • Use heroes, stories, traditions as a base for build cohesive, meaningful culture
  • Articulate a persuasive, exciting vision
benefits and risks of reframing
Benefits and Risks of Reframing
  • Frames can be used as scenarios or scripts to generate options and guide action
    • By choosing a new script, we can act in new ways and create new possibilities
    • Choose the role and drama that works for you
  • Each frame has distinctive advantages and risks
reframing for newcomers and outsiders
Reframing for Newcomers and Outsiders
  • Use of only one or two frames often leads to entrapment: inability to generate effective options in tough situations
    • Risk is even higher for newcomers and outsiders (including members of groups that have historically been excluded)
    • Newcomers and outsiders are less likely to get a second chance or the benefit of the doubt when they make mistakes
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Mangers can use the frames as scenarios, or scripts, to generate alternative approaches to challenging circumstances.
  • Reframing is a complex skill that takes time and persistence to develop
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