Italy in the Era of Gothic Florescence
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Italy in the Era of Gothic Florescence. LATE GOTHIC. Fragmentation varied and almost autonomous regional styles anti-French sentiment (started in the late 13 th cen.) Decline in the universal church Laicization secular outlook of prelates growth of towns grew

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Italy in the Era of Gothic Florescence

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Italy in the era of gothic florescence

Italy in the Era of Gothic Florescence


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

LATE GOTHIC

Fragmentation

varied and almost autonomous regional styles

anti-French sentiment (started in the late 13th cen.)

Decline in the universal church

Laicization

secular outlook of prelates

growth of towns grew

Indebtedness to lesser building types

Late phases of art in general

new solutions turned into established formulas

developed further by refining and elaborating

Milan Cathedral, choir 1386

Milan, Italy


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

Italy in post-Carolingian invasions of Europe

Italy in ca. 1000


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Italy in Trachtenberg’s thesis historical consciousness paradigm

The Romanesque churches of Rome ➞ so faithful to Early Christian models

immaculately historicist – Romanesque in terms of date only

Romanesque S. Giorgio in Velabro Rome, 12th century

Early Christian St. Peter’s


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Italy in Trachtenberg’s thesis historical consciousness paradigm

Strong legacy of the early Christian basilica

Early Christian basilica

Early Christian Santa Sabina, Rome


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Italy in relation to Europe at the height of the Romanesque period


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Reception of northern European Romanesque: Normans

Italian Romanesque in Rome:

S. Giorgio in Velabro, 12th century

Norman Romanesque in Italy: Trani Cathedral, Trani (Apulia), Italy, 1089-1200s


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Reception of northern European Romanesque: Normans

Italian Romanesque in Tuscany:

Pisa Cathedral

Norman Romanesque Trani Cathedral


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Reception of northern European Romanesque: Germany

Romanesque in Northern Italy

Holy Roman Empire-Northern Italy (Lombardy)-Rome – Rome-Northern Italy (Lombardy)-Holy Roman Empire

Rhine Valley Germany

Northern

Italy

Speyer, Germany

Lombardy, Italy

Rome, Italy


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Reception of northern European Romanesque: Germany

S. Ambrogio in Milan with quadripartite rib vaults on double-bay system, complete by 1117


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Other historicizing influences in Italy: Constantinople

Périgueux, France

Venice, Italy

Constantinople

St.-Front, Périgueux, France, 1120

St. Mark’s, Venice, Italy, b. 1063


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Other historicizing influences in Italy: Constantinople

Venice, Italy

Constantinople

Stilo, Italy

The Katholicon (Byzantine monastic church)

Stilo (Calabria), Italy , b. 982

St. Mark’s, Venice, Italy, b. 1063


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Southern Italy as Magna Graecia

(Greater Greece)

Normans arrive in Southern Italy in 999

establish dukedoms by 1095


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Norman kings in Sicily vs. Capetian royal house of France

Cappella Palatina (Palatine Chapel)

Palermo (Sicily), Italy, ca. 1131-1145

Ste-Chapelle (Palatine Chapel)

Paris, 1241-48


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Cappella Palatina (Palatine Chapel)

Palermo (Sicily), Italy, ca. 1131-1145

Ste-Chapelle, Paris, 1241-48


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Cappella Palatina, Palermo


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Cappella Palatina, Palermo

nave


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

I. Italy’s Diverse Romanesque experiments

Cappella Palatina, Palermo

muqarnas ornament on nave ceiling


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

II. Italy (in contrast to France) as fertile ground for the Gothic style (opus francigenum)

Italy at the dawn of the High Gothic period


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

II. Italy (in contrast to France) as fertile ground for the Gothic style (opus francigenum)

4 points of contrast

Reims Cathedral, France, 1211-90

Siena Cathedral, nave and transepts 1220-60

clerestory and vault rebuilt from 1369


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

III. Italy’s lessons in Gothic from Cistercian monasteries

Network of Cistercian monasteries


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

III. Italy’s lessons in Gothic from Cistercian monasteries

Siena Cathedral – Italy’s only early 13th cen. Gothic great church

San Galgano, Cisterican abbey, b. 1218

Siena Cathedral, 1220-60


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

III. Italy’s lessons in Gothic from Cistercian monasteries

Siena Cathedral

San Galgano, Cisterican abbey


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

III. Italy’s lessons in Gothic from Cistercian monasteries

Gothic Siena Cathedral

Romanesque Pisa Cathedral


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

IV. Italy’s own mendicant order Gothic

Franciscan monastery in Florence, Italy: Santa Croce, 1294-1492


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

IV. Italy’s own mendicant order Gothic

Santa Maria Novella, Florence


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

IV. Italy’s own mendicant order Gothic

Santa Maria Novella, Florence


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

V. Northern European Gothic in Italy: Milan Cathedral, b. 1386

Milan Cathedral, Milan, Italy, b. 1386


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

V. Northern European Gothic in Italy: Milan Cathedral

Milan Cathedral


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

V. Northern European Gothic in Italy: Milan Cathedral

Milan Cathedral


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

V. Northern European Gothic in Italy: Milan Cathedral

Milan Cathedral


Italy in the era of gothic florescence

V. Northern European Gothic in Italy: Milan Cathedral

Milan Cathedral


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