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FLUID MECHANICS IN HEADBOXES M. Shariati, E. Bibeau, M.Salcudean and I. Gartshore






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CFD Modelling Group Department of Mechanical Engineering University of British Columbia. Process Simulations Limited. FLUID MECHANICS IN HEADBOXES M. Shariati, E. Bibeau, M.Salcudean and I. Gartshore. March 12th, 2001 Cincinnati, OH. PRESENTATION.
FLUID MECHANICS IN HEADBOXES M. Shariati, E. Bibeau, M.Salcudean and I. Gartshore

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Fluid mechanics in headboxes m shariati e bibeau m salcudean and i gartshore l.jpgSlide 1

CFD Modelling Group

Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of British Columbia

Process Simulations Limited

FLUID MECHANICS IN HEADBOXESM. Shariati, E. Bibeau, M.Salcudean and I. Gartshore

March 12th, 2001

Cincinnati, OH

Presentation l.jpgSlide 2

PRESENTATION

  • Mathematical modelling in the pulp and paper industry

  • Why we model headboxes

  • How we model headboxes

  • Examples

    • flow in the header, tubes and slice

  • Conclusions and future

Process modelling group l.jpgSlide 3

PROCESS MODELLING GROUP

Slide4 l.jpgSlide 4

UBC-PSL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION

License

agreement

Custom

agreements

Service

agreements

Consulting

agreements

License

agreements

Government

Industry

Other Institutions

Process modelling l.jpgSlide 5

PROCESS MODELLING

Stages of analysis l.jpgSlide 6

STAGES OF ANALYSIS

INITIAL

STAGE

IN

PROGRESS

INDUSTRIAL

APPLICATION

PROCESS

SIMULATORS

Literature review

Mill interaction

Industrial innovators

Process knowledge

Commitment of industry

Physical model

Numerical model

Model development

Model validation

Industrial testing

Industrial application

Parametric studies

Solve problems

Model proposed retrofits

Improve operations

Reduce costs

Envelope calculations

Interpolation

Operational simulator

Training& safety

Interacts with control system

Technology transfer

Slide7 l.jpgSlide 7

MODELLING EXAMPLES

Jet engines

Weather

Computer

Harrier jet

Automotive

Headboxes l.jpgSlide 8

HEADBOXES

WHY MODEL HEADBOXES

  • Paper quality depends on the flow and fluid/fiber interaction in the headbox

  • Flow at the exit of the slice needs to be uniform

    • goal can be achieved only by knowing and controlling the flow upstream

  • Desirable paper properties impose certain requirements of fiber orientation which depends on the flow and turbulence characteristics

How we model headboxes l.jpgSlide 9

HOW WE MODEL HEADBOXES

  • Developed a model for the flow through the headbox including the header, individual tubes and slice

  • Developed a fiber motion model, which allows to compute the motion of the fiber in the fluid

  • Couple the fiber motion model with the fluid dynamics model

  • Compute the fiber motion in the fluid for a large number of fibers and obtain information on fiber orientation through the slice

  • Water model experiments to validate the above

Numerical cfd code l.jpgSlide 10

NUMERICAL CFD CODE

  • Code developed at the University of British Columbia

  • Generalized curvilinear system

  • Finite volume method

  • Block structured

  • Second order accurate for cross derivative terms

  • Steady and transient

  • Partial multigrid capability

Headbox wish list l.jpgSlide 11

HEADBOX WISH LIST

  • Select sheet properties

  • Improve control of fiber distribution

  • Control MD/CD ratios

  • Prevent non-uniformities (basis weight, fibre orientation)

  • Control fiber distribution

  • Flow Field (velocity, stresses, vorticity)

  • Fluid-fibre interaction

Headbox requirements l.jpgSlide 12

HEADBOX REQUIREMENTS

  • Supply to sheet forming section

    • Well dispersed stock

    • Constant percentage of fibers

  • Prevent formation of flocs

    • Remove flow non-uniformities

    • Create high-intensity turbulence

Model deliverables l.jpgSlide 13

MODEL DELIVERABLES

  • Manufacturers and Pulp Mills

  • Evaluate new headbox designs

  • Compare headbox designs

  • Trouble-shoot existing headboxes

  • Predict influence of control devices

  • Evaluate proposed retrofits and design changes

  • Help correlate sheet properties to headbox behavior

Generic headbox modelled l.jpgSlide 14

GENERIC HEADBOX MODELLED

Effect of flow recirculation l.jpgSlide 15

EFFECT OF FLOW RECIRCULATION

Slide16 l.jpgSlide 16

VELOCITY IN CDDIRECTION

Typical tube l.jpgSlide 17

TYPICAL TUBE

  • Velocity Vectors

  • Pressure contours

Tube flow entrance effect l.jpgSlide 18

TUBE FLOW ENTRANCE EFFECT

  • Green

    • Flow turns before entering tubes

  • Red

    • Flow enters straight

  • Affects

    • Flow profile into slice

    • Fibre distribution and orientation

Converging section l.jpgSlide 19

CONVERGINGSECTION

  • Velocityvectors

  • 3 slices in CD direction

Converging section20 l.jpgSlide 20

CONVERGING SECTION

  • Velocity vectors

  • Contours in machine Direction (MD)

Slide21 l.jpgSlide 21

VELOCITY IN CD DIRECTION

Slide22 l.jpgSlide 22

VELOCITY IN MD DIRECTION

Slide23 l.jpgSlide 23

KINETIC ENERGY IN CONVERGING SECTION

Slide24 l.jpgSlide 24

LENGTH SCALE

Experimental method l.jpgSlide 25

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD

Md velocity l.jpgSlide 26

U

MD VELOCITY

Slide27 l.jpgSlide 27

CD VELOCITY

Velocity at the exit plane v w u inlet and u inlet 1 22 m s l.jpgSlide 28

Velocity at the exit plane V, W/Uinlet andUinlet= 1.22 m/s

Cd velocity m s l.jpgSlide 29

CD VELOCITY (m/s)

K-e

RSM

Symmetry plane velocity fluctuations rms rms at inlet l.jpgSlide 30

Symmetry Plane Velocity Fluctuations (RMS/RMS at inlet)

Turbulence intensity rms md velocity symmetry plane l.jpgSlide 31

TURBULENCE INTENSITY (RMS/MD VELOCITY) SYMMETRY PLANE

Turbulence kinetic energy l.jpgSlide 32

TURBULENCE KINETIC ENERGY

Effect of shape l.jpgSlide 33

EFFECT OF SHAPE

Slide34 l.jpgSlide 34

KINETIC ENERGY

Slide35 l.jpgSlide 35

SIMULATION OF CONVERGING SECTION WITH TUBE BANKS

Fiber motion l.jpgSlide 36

FIBER MOTION

  • Fiber is modeled as chains of spheroids

  • Model can deal with the wall automatically for different geometry

1

N-1

N

3

2

Ball and Socket Joints

Experimental setup l.jpgSlide 37

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Fiber motion results l.jpgSlide 38

FIBER MOTION RESULTS

  • Fiber orientation mid channel at x = 12.2 cm

Side view

Edge view

Fiber motion results39 l.jpgSlide 39

FIBER MOTION RESULTS

  • Fiber orientation mid channel at x = 19.2 cm

Side view

Edge view

Fiber motion results40 l.jpgSlide 40

FIBER MOTION RESULTS

  • Fiber orientation mid channel at x = 26.2 cm

Side view

Edge view

Results highlights l.jpgSlide 41

RESULTS HIGHLIGHTS

  • There exists obvious difference between the results from the experiments and simulations

  • Cause for this phenomenon maybe the fact that in our fiber simulation, only the effects of the mean flow properties are considered

  • As a result, the turbulence effect on the fiber orientation should not be neglected

Results overview l.jpgSlide 42

RESULTS OVERVIEW

  • Simulation results from the mean flow field show fiber orientation has little relation with

    • the mean flow velocity

    • the channel length

    • the fiber aspect ratio in the interested range

  • Fiber orientation increases with the increment of the contraction ratio of the channel

Conclusions l.jpgSlide 43

CONCLUSIONS

  • Designing of the header is critical to obtain flow uniformity in the slice

  • Level of turbulence induced by the tubes is very important for the exit flow characteristics

  • Secondary flows induced by turbulence anisotropy are negligible

  • Main flow is well predicted by the standard K-e equations

  • Turbulence characteristics are not well predicted by the standard K-e model

  • The fiber is significantly aligned by the contraction in the slice. However the turbulence induced fiber randomness is very essential

Future work l.jpgSlide 44

FUTURE WORK

  • Turbulence modeling needs to be improved. Large eddy simulation is currently under development

  • Fiber/ fiber interaction will have to be introduced in the fiber model and will be introduced in the model in the future

  • Turbulence effect on the fiber has to be accounted for. The model is being currently developed.

  • The fiber orientation in the slice has to be modelled again with the above mentioned improvements

  • Current model allows for assessing headboxes and can be used as a design assessment and optimization tool

  • Development currently under way will allow for realistic assessment of fiber orientation at the exit of the slice


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