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Prof.Aux. Msc.Ing. Jorge Arcos Méndez Teléfono en GREDES 267 1123 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría. TRAINING COURSE MCRR (Management Centers for Risk Reduction ) EXPERIENCE OF THE CUBAN MODEL. “ Putting science in everyday language, here is something only few do” José Martí. EXERCISE

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Prof.Aux. Msc.Ing. Jorge Arcos Méndez Teléfono en GREDES 267 1123

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Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Instituto Superior Politécnico

José Antonio Echeverría

TRAINING COURSE

MCRR (Management Centers forRiskReduction) EXPERIENCE OF THE CUBAN MODEL

“Putting science in everyday language, here is something only few do”

José Martí

EXERCISE

WORK OF MCRR IN PLANNING MEASURES FOR PREVENTION.

Prof.Aux. Msc.Ing. Jorge Arcos Méndez Teléfono en GREDES 267 1123

Prof.Aux. Msc.Ing. Emilia Fors Garzón. E Mail: [email protected]


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

OBJETIVES OF THE EXERCISE

Modeling a situation of disaster by hurricane or heavy rain. Proposing preventive measures for disaster reduction in the MCRR in the territory, that promote climatic change adaptation and population sustainability.

  • STARTING DATA

  • Territoryplanning

  • Information of thetypology of buildings and itsconstructiveconditions.

  • Scale of estimateddangerstobuildingbyhurricanecategory.

  • Data table of population and affectedareas.

  • Hurricanecategorytable

  • Floodingmap

  • Classification of natural hazards

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY : Classification of floodingassumedby GREDES fordifferentdisasterstudies. ARCOS COCA tableforhazardclassficationduetowinds, differentsources of Internet downloadedby Jorge Arcos aboutdamagesbyflooding and winds in Puerto Rico. Typology of Cuban buildings. Description of Cuban urbantypologies.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

CONTENT OF THE EXERCISE

Modeling the effects of winds of a II category Hurricane in Entre RíosCommunity.

Modeling the effects of flooding by heavy rains of up to 158mm in 24 hours in a Residential Neighborhood

  • OUTPUT DATA

  • Preventivemeasuresforrehabilitation of thebuiltfund.

    • Number of buildingsproposedforimrovingitsconstructiveconditions.

    • Number of buildingsproposedforchangingitsconstructivetypology.

  • Preventivemeasures in constructing protector worksforreducingriverfloodingarea

  • Preventivemeasuresforurbanplanning.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Classification of hazardby tropical cyclones

Considering the effect of winds on structural elements of the territory.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Classification of hazardby heavy rains

Considering the flooding caused by tropical cyclones and local storms on the urban area.

The degree of risk is given by the high water runoff that occurs in urban areas and that causes great accumulation of water into the river.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Classificationof hazardsbyflooding.

Considering the infraestructure of the urbanized area and the coefficients of water runoff in this case

Lámina 24 horas.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Classification of hazardbytheheightof flooding.

  • Moderatefloodings

  • of height of 0.91m to 1.80m

    • Can cause damagestohumanlife.

    • Can cause damages in non-structuralelements of buildings of I to III typology.

    • Can cause structuraldamages in buildings of IV to VI typology.

    • Disruptionontheaccesses and can cause damagestostructuralelementsonhighways.

  • Extreme floodings

  • of heightover1.80m

    • Can cause damagestohumanlife.

    • Can cause damages in non-structuralelements of buildings of I to III typology.

    • Can cause structuraldamages in buildings of IV to VI typology.

    • Disruptionontheaccesses and can cause damagestostructuralelementsonhighways.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Characterizationof floodingstream

Considering the topography


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Classification of hazardbyfloodingstreamspeed

  • Slow Stream flooding

  • Speed less than:

    • 0.9 m/seg. = 3 pies/seg. = 3.3 km/h,

      • Do not cause serious damages to the structure

      • Dangerous to human security

  • Speed of:

    • 0.6 m/seg. = 2 pies/seg. = 2.2 km/h

      • Sandy soil erosion

        Fast Stream flooding

  • Speed less than:

    • 1.5 m/seg. = 5 pies/seg. = 5.5 km/h

      • Cause severe damages by soil erosion.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

TYPOLOGIES OF BUILDINGS


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

  • URBAN TYPOLOGY OF ENTRE RÍOS COMMUNITY

  • Urbanplotbuiltby blocks

  • Thebuildings are developed in depthusually in the block perimeter.

  • Presence of wallbetweenbuildings

  • Constructiontypologypredominantly of woods, masonry, brick or block either.

  • Sloping roofs with French tiles, of fiber cement and combined with armed concrete and bricks.

  • Storm drainagewithfittedorsurfaceddrainpipes in facades.

  • Averageheight of thebuildingsalmostequal


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

  • URBAN TYPOLOGY IN A RESIDENTIAL NEIGHBORHOOD

  • Urbanplotconstituted byblocks in a semi compact urbanization

  • Thebuildings are developed in depth in frontto back in the block perimeterbutnotnecessarlyin itsedge

  • Perimeter aisles of buildings of 0.75 m and more

  • Dominating the front gardens of 3 to 5m.

  • Sidewalks with grass and trees

  • Surfaced Storm drainage and underground waste disposal and underground tanks.

  • Unevenheight of buildings.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Left

Right

Left

ENE

Before

During

S

After

Characteristicsof hazardtropical cycloneusedformodeling

For the modeling a case of a III Cat. Hurricane at Saffir-Simpson scale , it is assumed the historical worst trajectory of natural events, south-north at left of the community under analysis ..

From the convention drawn up by GREDES ‘ specialists for wind direction and trajectories used in studies of GREDES.

Accompanied by heavy rainfall over 150 mm that, coinciding with the wettest months, finds a saturated soil, making it more dangerous


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Preventivemeasuresto reduce vulnerabilitytotheeffects of heavy winds

IMPORTANT NOTE:

The effects caused by hurricane winds are regional, with dimensions over the territory choosen for the study.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

h ≥ 25m

0.6h

0.6h

SCENARIO OF HAZARD

ENTRE RÍOS COMMUNITY

Direction of

thewinds

NE - ENE

Direction of the winds

N

Before

NE-ENE

ENTRE RÍOS

COMMUNITY

During

P

SB

ESE-SE

Details of urban plot

After

SSE-S

Medical consulting

Policlinic

Schools

The periphery highlighted in red has a different treatment to the center zone for modeling wind direction, The total length of the periphery of the community affected is 2km.

Leyenda

Direction of

theWinds

SSE - S

Historial Center

15

New development


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

From the total of affected buildings by the Modelated Hurricane, 80% are in perifery blocks in the probable direction of winds and they are not protected by the density of the urban plot and its regular average height of nor more than 10 m.

Direction of the wind NE-ENE

Details of the effects on the urban plot with winds of NE-ENE

Block periphery

Effect of suction on the cellings

Direction of the wind ENE-E

Interior Blocks

Effect of pressure over the facades

Details of the effects on urban plot by winds ENE-E

The rest of the affected buildings are within the urban plot, where the effects of the wind are on the roofs.

The effects are only on the facades when the direction of the winds coincides with street axys causing suction force in facades.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

From the results of the studies to the community buildings there are obtained the probable damages by type and construction conditions that can cause various hurricane categories. The buildings exposed to a likely total damage correspond to the building typologies IV, V, and VI, the rest of the buildings with construction typologies III, II may suffer partial damages.

  • Consideringtheeffects of the load of windsthat are producedaccordingto:

  • Topography of the place

  • Winddirectiontakingintoaccountthetrajectory of thehurricane

  • Typology and structure of theurbanplot

  • Location of buildingswithintheurbanplot.

  • Typology and constructionconditions of buildings


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

The following table shows the data of the affected population liable to be evacuated, by total or partial damages, and that will require a temporary housing until the damage is restored

Reserve areas that should be used for temporary housing for emergency or progressive rate, by planning, are about 42m2 to 69m2, to each house, of an 80% approximately that may suffer total damages, totaling 2.769 houses equal to an area of 116,298m2 a 191,061m2 or 12ha to 19ha.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Vulnerabilities of thebuildingfundtothehazard of Tropical Cyclones

The levels of vulnerability are refered to the urban scale and are related to the perimetral block that are affected by the effects of winds not only in the roofs but also in the facades


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Evaluation of thebuiltfundRiskbythehazard of tropical cyclones

Matrix for Risk evaluation of the Community. (proposal)

Risk LOW (Acceptable)

Risk MEDIUM (Reducible)

Measures for reducing risk

Risk HIGH (Reducible)

Risk VERY HIGH (Unacceptable)

Risk values and ranges depending on the economical posibilities for reconstruction and response.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

P

SB

P

SB

Medical consulting

Policlinic

ENTRE RÍOS

COMMUNITY

Leyend

Historical Center

New development


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Analysis of theproposalsforurbanplanningdueto III Cat. HurricaneDamages.

ENTRE RÍOS

COMMUNITY


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Preventivemeasuresforreducingvulnerabilitiestofloodingby heavy rains

IMPORTANT NOTE:

RAINS, UNLIKE HURRICANES, HAVE SPECIFIC EFFECTS, therefore the analysis of vulnerability of flooding by heavy rains, (unlike the vulnerability by strong winds that can be done by general statistics of the conditions of the buildings in the territory) IS ONLY CIRCUNSCRIED TO THE BLOCKS WITHIN THE FLOODING MAPS AND TO THOSE THAT ARE LOCATED IN LOW AREAS, and not for the entire territory that covers a particular political division.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Modeling of theeffects of floodingby heavy rains.

Área of analysis

RESIDENTIAL

NEIGHBORHOOD


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

360m

Blocks highlighted in red are the location of buildings with IV, V, and VI typologies


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

From the results of the studies to buildings by typology and construction conditions can be assumed the probable damages of buildings located in flooding levels 2 and 3.

In the first level of flooding, there are only affected small areas of short-cycle crops. The buildings exposed to a likely total damage correspond to those of IV, V, and VI typologies, due to the construction materials used in roofs and walls not suitable to cases of flooding levels exceeding the strut.

The rest of the buildings with I, II and III typologies may be considered to suffer damages in their non-structural elements and its functional vulnerability


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Buildings affected by flooding effects.

  • The impact due to flooding depends on:

  • Topography, slope, soil type

  • Degree of saturation of the soil

  • Characteristics of the river

  • Type and structure of the urban plot

  • Location of the building within the urban plot

  • Typology and physical conditions of the buildings


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

In the following table, there are shown the data of affected population by total or partial damages, or just for being the houses located in places under more than 1m water, this population has to be evacuated and is susceptible to continue evacuated until minimum living conditions are restored.

As it can be appreciated , evacuation is not only carried out to the population or economical activities in buildings with vulnerable construction typologies , but also the entire population or economical functions in buildings that, for the level of the water, should not stay in the site.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Vulnerabilities of thebuildingfundbyfloodinghazard

Vulnerability levels are referred to the affected blocks according to the different maps of flooding, and also to materials of construction of the walls and ceilings and the physical condition of the buildings within those flooding maps.


Prof aux msc ing jorge arcos m ndez tel fono en gredes 267 1123

Evaluation of theRisk of thebuiltfundtohazardsbyflooding

Matrix for risk evaluation by flooding in a residential neighborhood

Risk LOW (Acceptable)

Risk MEDIUM (Reducible)

Risk classification

Risk HIGH (Reducible)

Risk VERY HIGH (Unacceptable)

The values ​​and range of the risk depend on the economic possibilities for reconstruction and response. It is up to local governments with the consulting of working groups of the territory for the realization of the study.


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