Identifying & Engaging Unprepared Students
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Identifying & Engaging Unprepared Students : Practical Strategies & Techniques For Today's College Classroom. Debra Dunlap Runshe Instructional Development Specialist University Information Technology Services - Learning Technologies Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis.

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Identifying & Engaging Unprepared Students : Practical Strategies & Techniques For Today's College Classroom

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Identifying & Engaging Unprepared Students:Practical Strategies & Techniques For Today's College Classroom

Debra Dunlap Runshe

Instructional Development Specialist

University Information Technology Services - Learning Technologies

Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis


Webinar Objectives

By the end of the webinar, participants will:

  • identify specific reasons why the first year of college is the “make or break” year for different populations of students.

  • recognize characteristics and/or behaviors of unprepared students.

  • describe best practices to engage learners.

  • identify techniques that can be incorporated into their classes that will lead to student success.


Myth or Reality?? Unprepared?

“The number of academically unprepared and at-risk students enrolling in colleges and universities is increasing.”


Why is the Freshman year important?

“Research clearly indicates that the freshman year is a critical period during which students are most likely to withdraw from higher education.”

~Joe Cuseo


Major Reasons for Academic Difficulty

  • Poor management of time

  • Continue to organize and

    study the same way as

    they did in high school

  • Selection of courses

  • They studied alone

(Light, 2001)

Resources for College Success:

The New York Times Tip Sheet: How to Succeed in College

http://thechoice.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/06/how-to-succeed-in-college/

Learn More Indiana: How do you succeed in college? http://www.in.gov/learnmoreindiana/2611.htm


Time Management

  • Set goals

  • Plan ahead

  • Prioritize your tasks

  • Use good study habits

  • Identify resources for help

Resources to Improve Time Management:

Mind Tools: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_HTE.htm


Study Skills

“Many students have never been exposed to different ways to approach studying or even to the idea that there are different ways to study … We can help students learn about different strategies and when to use them.”

~Marilla Svinicki

Resources to Improve Study Skills:

Study Guides and Strategies: http://studygs.net/

StudentLingo: http://www.innovativeeducators.org/StudentLingo_s/77.htm


Basic Definitions

(Svinicki, 2004)


Flash Cards

Resources to Create Flash Cards:

Flash Card Machine: http://www.flashcardmachine.com

ProProfs Flash Cards: http://www.proprofs.com/flashcards/


Structural Knowledge

(Svinicki, 2004)


Concept Maps

Resources to Create Concept Maps:

Cmap Tools: http://cmap.ihmc.us/

Gliffy: http://www.gliffy.com/


Applications of Concepts to Problems

(Svinicki, 2004)


Analysis of Problem Situations

(Svinicki, 2004)


Effective Learning Techniques

Low Utility

Moderate Utility

High Utility

  • summarization

  • highlighting

  • keyword mnemonic

  • imagery use for text learning

  • rereading

  • practice testing

  • distributed practice

  • interleaved practice

  • elaborative interrogation

  • self-explanation

(Dunlosky, et.al., 2013)


Characteristics and/or Behaviors

Identifying Guidelines

  • Low SAT or ACT scores

  • High School GPA below 3.0

  • Might have ADHD or LD*

  • Special Admit

    Identifying Activities

  • Reading and Vocabulary Quiz

  • Writing Sample

(Gabriel, 2008)

Resources to Improve Vocabulary and Grammar:

Study Guide Zone http://www.studyguidezone.com/theatest.htm

The Guide to Grammar and Writing http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/vocabulary.htm


Course Alignment

Outcomes

What should my students know?

What should they be able to do?

What type of activities can help students achieve the learning outcomes?

How will I know that they have achieved the outcomes?

Activities

Assessment


Tips for Course Alignment

Outcomes

Activities

Assessments

  • state clearly from learner’s point of view

  • measurable

  • provide at the course and unit/module level

  • expectations shared early

  • varied to accommodate student diversity

  • formative and summative

  • include thorough instructions and a grading rubric

  • engaging and active

  • opportunity for application

  • provide choice


Seven Principles for Good Practice

  • Encourages student-faculty contact

  • Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students

  • Uses active learning techniques

  • Gives prompt feedback

  • Emphasizes time on task

  • Communicates high expectations

  • Respects diverse talents and ways of learning

(Chickering & Gamson, 1987)

Resources for Implementation of the Seven Principles:

TLT Ideas & Resources: http://www.tltgroup.org/seven/home.htm


Principle 1: Encourages Student-Faculty Contact

Suggestions:

  • Encourage classroom interaction

  • Establish rapport with students

  • Provide personalized feedback

  • Increase accessibility

  • Express interest in students

  • Participate in co-curricular activities


The First Week of Class

Begin with a detailed and explicit syllabus.

Learn your students’ names.

Strategies to accomplish this:

  • Seating chart, student choice

  • Name plates

  • Office hours “interviews”

Pictures

(Gabriel, 2008)


Building Community

Expert Group A

A A A

Home Group 1

ABC

Expert Group B

B B B

Home Group 2

ABC

Expert Group C

C C C

Home Group 3

ABC

Resources for Building Community:

University of South Alabama , Using Online Icebreakers to Promote Student/Teacher Interaction: http://www.southalabama.edu/oll/jobaidsfall03/Icebreakers Online/icebreakerjobaid.htm

Lansing Community College Center for Teaching Excellence, Icebreaker Activities: http://www.lcc.edu/cte/resources/teachingtips/icebreakers.aspx


Principle 1: Online Connection

Communication tools (email, discussion, chat, and web conferencing) can increase and strengthen student-faculty contact by:

  • Fostering more thoughtful responses.

  • Encouraging shy students to participate.

  • Providing more communication opportunities for commuter and part-time students.

  • Offering more time to read and formulate responses for ESOL students.

(Chickering & Erhmann, 1996)


Principle 2: Cooperation Among Students

Suggestions:

  • Plan cooperative learning activities, such as:

    • Group projects, presentations, or papers

    • Study groups

    • Peer tutoring

    • Peer evaluation

  • Foster collaborative rather than competitive or independent environments.


Essential Ingredients of Cooperative Learning

  • Positive interdependence

  • Individual accountability

    and personal responsibility

  • Social skills

  • Group processing

(Johnson & Johnson, 2003)


Applications of Cooperative Learning

  • Learning new content

  • Peer review

  • Checking homework

  • Test preparation and review

  • Presentations and projects

  • Labs and experiments

  • Drill and review

(Johnson & Johnson, 2003)


General Strategies for Cooperative Learning

  • Matching group size to activity

    • Informal activity (2-4 students)

    • Formal activity (4-6 students)

  • Setting intermittent deadlines and offer continual feedback

  • Including self and peer assessment

  • Assign differentiated group or individual grades

  • Maintaining the groups for the duration of the semester

  • Avoiding forming groups which have only one woman or one minority

  • (Johnson & Johnson, 2003; Millis & Cottrell, 1998)


    Group Selection for Cooperative Learning

    Long-term group selection criteria

    • Academic ability

    • Class/work schedule

    • Interest/skill level

    • Learning style

      Short-term group selection criteria

    • Values or opinions

    • Convenience

    • Random

    (Millis & Cottrell, 1998)


    Methods for Selecting Group Members

    • Student data sheet

    • Interest/knowledge/skills checklist

    • Learning style inventories

    • Structured lineup process

    • Corners

    • Three-step interview

    • Playing cards

    (Millis & Cottrell, 1998)

    Additional Online Resources: http://edtech.kennesaw.edu/intech/cooperativelearning.htm


    Principle 2: Online Connection

    Communication tools (email, discussion, chat, and web conferencing) can be used for:

    • Study groups

    • Collaborative

      learning activities

    • Group problem-solving

    • Group discussion

    (Chickering & Erhmann, 1996)


    Principle 3: Active Learning

    • Suggestions:

    • Interactive lectures

    • Discussions and debates

    • Student presentations

  • Collaborative writing exercises

  • Problem-based learning activities

    • Case studies

  • Role playing

  • Simulations and games


  • Active Learning Defined

    “In the college classroom, active learning involves students doing things and thinking about the things they do.”

    ~Chuck Bonwell


    Why Active Learning?

    Research suggests active learning strategies:

    • more frequently engage students.

    • lead to increased student achievement.

    • enhance students’ metacognitive skills.


    Retention of Information

    After 24 hours, what percent of information is retained by students in a lecture environment?

    • 5%

    • 10%

    • 20%

    • 40%

    • 50%


    Retention After 24 Hours

    NTL Institute for Applied Behavioral Science

    300 N. Lee Street, Suite 300, Alexandria, VA 22314. 1-800-777-5227


    Principle 3: Online Connection

    Types of technology tools which encourage active learning:

    • Learning by doing (simulations, interactive software, web research)

    • Time-delayed exchange (email & discussion)

    • Real-time conversation (chat & web conferencing)

    (Chickering & Erhmann, 1996)


    Principle 4: Prompt Feedback

    Suggestions:

    Provide feedback that is:

    • Timely

    • Directive

    • Specific

    • Appropriate

      Use peer review when appropriate


    Principle 4: Online Connection

    Examples of technology tools which facilitate

    prompt feedback:

    • Communication tools

    • Automated assessment

    • Word comments

    • Electronic portfolios

    (Chickering & Erhmann, 1996)


    Principle 5: Time on Task

    Suggestions:

    • Engage learners

    • Develop goals

    • Use class time wisely

    • Provide study suggestions

    • Post module/weekly checklists

    • Communicate clear expectations

    • Break down learning into small portions

    • Encourage students to develop time management skills


    The Science of Learning

    Teach for long term retention and transfer:

    • Practice and retrieval

    • Vary the conditions

    • “Re-represent” information in an alternative format

    • Construct knowledge based upon prior knowledge and experience

    • Chunk information

    • Motivation

    (Halpern & Hakel, 2003)


    Principle 5: Online Connection

    Technology tools can:

    • Make study time

      more efficient

    • Make access to

      resources more

      efficient

    • Increase study

      time

    (Chickering & Erhmann, 1996)


    Principle 6: High Expectations

    Suggestions:

    • Foster supportive climate

    • Provide clear expectations of performance

    • Offer alternative assignments to meet individual students’ needs and interests

    • Provide models of outstanding student work

    • Hold yourself to the same standard of excellence

    • Offer immediate feedback

    • Tolerate mistakes

    • Celebrate success


    Principle 6: Online Connection

    Technology tools can communicate high

    expectations by:

    • Stating expectations explicitly and efficiently

    • Posting samples of work representing different levels of quality

    • Automating peer review

    • Posting detailed rubrics

    • Publishing exemplary student work

    (Chickering & Erhmann, 1996)


    Principle 7: Diverse Talents

    Suggestions:

    • Accommodate diversity

    • Teach to different learning preferences


    Felder-Silverman Model

    Students learn about their learning preferences and strategies that will assist them in being successful.

    Their preferences fall on a continuum between:

    • active or reflective

    • sensing or intuitive

    • visual or verbal

    • sequential or global

    Felder’s Online Resources: http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Learning_Styles.html


    Principle 7: Online Connection

    Technology tools can meet different learning

    styles by:

    • Providing a variety of learning experiences

    • Allowing students to work at their own pace

    • Providing varying levels of structure

    (Chickering & Erhmann, 1996)


    Points to Remember…

    • Many of our students are coming to us unprepared for the rigors of college life.

    • Identifying them early is crucial to their success.

    • We can help by providing them with strategies for:

      • setting goals, planning, prioritizing, organizing their time,

      • learning how to study effectively, and

      • connecting with others and their learning.


    Questions?


    Thank You for Your Participation!

    Debra Dunlap Runshe, Instructional Development Specialist

    University Information Technology Services – Learning Technologies

    Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis

    Information Technology and Communications Complex (IT 342H)535 West Michigan Street, Indianapolis, IN 46202

    Phone: 317-278-0589 

    Email:[email protected]


    Resources

    Adelman, C. (2004). Principal indicators of student academic histories in postsecondary education, 1972-2000: U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences.

    Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

    Bonwell, C.C. & Eison, J.A. (1991). Active learning: Creating excitement in the classroom. Washington, DC: School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University.  

    Bonwell, C.C. & Sutherland, T.E. (1996). Using active learning in college classes: A range of options for faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


    Resources

    Braxton, J.M. (2008). The role of the classroom in college student persistence. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

    Chickering, A.W., & Gamson, Z.F. (1987). Seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin 39(7), 3-7.

    Chickering, A.W. & Ehrmann S.C. (1996, October). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever. AAHE Bulletin, 3-6.

    Cuseo, J. B. (1991). The freshman orientation seminar: A research-based rationale for its value, delivery, and content. The Freshman Year Experience. Monograph Series (4), 673-677. Columbia, SC: National Resource Center for The Freshman Year Experience.

    Dunlosky, J., Rawson, K. A., Marsh, E. J., Nathan, M. J., & Willingham, D. T. (2013, January). Improving students’ learning with effective learning techniques: Promising directions from cognitive and educational psychology. Psychological Science in the Public interest. 14(1) 4-58.


    Resources

    Felder, R.M. & Silverman, L.K. (1988). Learning and teaching styles in engineering education. Engr. Education, 78(7), 674-681.

    Gabriel, K.F. (2008). Teaching unprepared students: Strategies for promoting success and retention in higher education. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

    Halpern, D.F. & Hakel, M.D. (2003, July/August). Applying the science of learning to the university and beyond. Change, 35, 36-41.

    Hatfield, S.R. editor; with David G. Brown ... [et al.]; and special sections by Martin Nemko, contributing editor. (1995). The seven principles in action: Improving undergraduate education. Bolton, MA: Anker Publishing.

    Johnson, D.W. & Johnson, R.T. (1994). Learning together and alone: Cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning. 4th ed. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.


    Resources

    Kuh, G.D., Pace, C.R. & Vesper, N. (1997). The development of process indicators to estimate student gains associated with good practices in undergraduate education, Research in Higher Education 38(4), 435-454.

    Kuh, G. Kinzie, J., Schuh, J., Whitt, E., & Associates. (2005). Student success in college: Creating conditions that matter. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Light, R.J. (2001). Making the most of college: Student speak their minds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

    Millis, B.J., & Cottrell, P.G. (1998). Cooperative learning for higher education faculty. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.

    Svinicki, M.D. (2004). Learning and motivation in the postsecondary classroom. Bolton, MA: Anker Pub. Co.


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