III. Accessory Digestive Organs
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III. Accessory Digestive Organs. A. Pancreas. 1. pancreatic duct. 2. enzymes. - trypsin. - lipase. - amylase. - nucleases. digestion is basically completed by intestinal enzymes. 3. bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ). 4. hormones. - insulin. - glucagon. B. Liver. 1. bile.

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III. Accessory Digestive Organs

A. Pancreas

1. pancreatic duct

2. enzymes

- trypsin

- lipase

- amylase

- nucleases

digestion is basically completed by intestinal enzymes


3. bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)

4. hormones

- insulin

- glucagon


B. Liver

1. bile

- pigments and bile salts

- emulsification

2. gallbladder

3. detoxification

4. glucose  glycogen

insulin vs. glucagon


I. Animal Reproduction

A. Asexual

1. fission

2. budding

3. parthenogenesis


B. Sexual

1. gametes  zygote


2. hermaphroditism

- most are not self-fertilizers


3. sex determination

a. Y chromosome (many animals, all mammals)

- indifferent gonads in embryo


b. Z and W chromosomes (birds and some fish)

- male is ZZ, female is ZW

- egg carries either Z or W

c. most ants and bees

- females are from fertilized eggs (are diploid)

- males are from unfertilized eggs (are haploid)


4. types of sexual reproduction

a. oviparity

- externally laid eggs

- birds, most reptiles and amphibians


b. ovoviviparity

- internal eggs

- some reptiles, many fish (including most sharks)


c. viviparity

- developing young nourished by mother

(such as with a placenta)

- most mammals, some snakes and lizards, some fish


II. External Fertilization

A. Bony fish

B. Amphibians


III. Internal Fertilization

Several types

1. birds

2. reptiles


3. mammals

- monotremes

- marsupials


- placental

- estrous cycle


IV. Males

A. Sperm

1. production and secretion

a. testes

- descend


b. seminiferous tubules (site of sperm production)

c. epididymis

- sperm stored and mature - become motile


d. vas deferens

e. urethra


2. scrotum

- temperature regulation

3. testosterone


B. Penis

1. 3 cylinders of cavernous tissue

- usually retractable

2. dilation of arterioles/closure of venules

3. ejaculation

- around 2-5 ml of semen

- 50-130 million sperm per ml

- < 20 million per ml = infertile


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