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AP BIOLOGY Chapters 4 & 5. http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/740/55147.JPG http://www.yellowtang.org/images/macromolecules1_tb_784.jpg. Identify the following functional groups. sulfhydryl. carbonyl. carboxyl. Hydroxyl (alcohol). phosphate. amino.

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Ap biology chapters 4 5
AP BIOLOGYChapters 4 & 5

http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/740/55147.JPG

http://www.yellowtang.org/images/macromolecules1_tb_784.jpg


sulfhydryl

carbonyl

carboxyl

Hydroxyl(alcohol)

phosphate

amino

Images from: http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/week2/2webimages/Groups_5.gif

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphate


ketone

aldehyde

Images from: http://www.chemcases.com/nutra/nutra1b.htm


B is asymmetric; it has 4 different groups attached

Campbell and Reece 7th edition


CIS TRANS

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/fig/0170950206002.png


adding a phosphate group to ADP

  • Cells store energy by ________________

  • a) Adding a phosphate group to ADP

  • b) Removing a phosphate group from ATP

Compounds containing carbon are called

___________

organic


carbonyl

phosphate

  • IDENTIFY THE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN THIS TRIPEPTIDE

sulfhydryl

carboxyl

amino

hydroxyl

carbonyl

? Modified from Cambell and Reece; AP Biology 7th edition Chapter 4 Self quiz


4

  • Carbon atoms are able to form bonds with

  • ___ different atoms at the same time.

The ionized form of an amino group has a___ charge at cellular pH 7.2

positive

http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/biochemistry/ionized%20amino%20group.gif


It can form 4 covalent bonds

  • Carbon is tetravalent. What does this mean?


geometric

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/fig/0170950206002.png


Enantiomers (stereoisomers)

How are isomers are different from isotopes?

ISOMERS are molecules with the same

molecular formula but different structures

ISOTOPES are atoms with the same number

of protons but different numbers of neutrons


Nonpolar in spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon are called ________________

  • Hydrocarbons contain many _________carbon-hydrogen bonds.

  • polar nonpolar

The ionized form of a carboxyl group has a___ charge at cellular pH 7.2

negative

http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/biochemistry/biochemi.htm


Chemical process that splits in spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon are called ________________(lysis) water molecules (hydro) and breaks a covalent bond as the OH- and H groups are added back to the original monomer is called:

hydrolysis

http://www.usd116.org/apalla/biology/unit3/notes/3notes1.htm


Condensation reaction (Dehydration synthesis)

Name the four main classes of

biological macromolecules

Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids


monosaccharides each other with the removal of a water molecule

  • The simplest sugars are called

  • ________________

GLYCOGEN

_____________ is the highly branched

polysaccharide used by animal cells to

store glucose. Also called animal starch

NONPOLAR

Lipids are____________ molecules

polar nonpolar


Chemical process that splits molecules each other with the removal of a water molecule

by the addition of water.

hydrolysis

http://www.usd116.org/apalla/biology/unit3/notes/3notes1.htm


dissaccharides each other with the removal of a water molecule

  • Molecules made of two monosaccharides

  • are called ______________

The subunits joined to make proteinsare _______________

amino acids

The major polysaccharide component

found in plant cell walls is

_____________________

cellulose


6 each other with the removal of a water molecule

4

1

3

2

  • Use the correct numbering sequence to identify the number of this carbon

5


polysaccharides each other with the removal of a water molecule

  • Carbohydrates made from joining manysugar molecules together are called

  • ____________________

Glucose and fructose can be joined to makesucrose via a ___________________ reaction.

dehydration synthesis


BETA ALPHA Hydroxyl is up Hydroxyl is down

http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/543Halphabetaglucose.gif


starch placement of the hydroxyl group attached to the #1 carbon.

  • Amylose and amylopectin are both forms of _____________

How are these different?

Amylose is unbranched and joined only

by α 1,4 linkages

Amylopectin is branched with 1,6 linkagesat the branch points


Starch is made up of glucose rings in the placement of the hydroxyl group attached to the #1 carbon.α (alpha) form joined by 1,4 linkages; helical; can be branched; humans can digest this

Cellulose is made up of glucose rings in the ß (beta) form so every other glucose is upside down the respect to its neighbors; joined with 1,4 linkages; straight-never branched; hydrogen bonds join parallel molecules into microfibrils; humans can’t digest this

  • How are starch and cellulose different?


cellulose

Where is chitin found in nature?

Cell walls of fungi;

exoskeletons of arthropods


Hydrogen bonds hold about 80 cellulose molecules together to make a microfibril

Image modified from: Campbell and Reece; AP Biology 7th edition


Image modified from: http://www.yskf.jp/yskf_en/img_03/03_01.gif

N-acetylglucosamine

(NAG)

  • This subunit is _________________

It can be joined together in long chains by

ß 1,4 linkages to make _________

chitin


unsaturated

Another name for a triacylglycerol molecule

fat


covalent

A fatty acid possessing one or more doublebonds between carbons in the hydrocarbontail is called _______________

unsaturated


Hydrogen bonds

A fatty acid in which all carbons in the

hydrocarbon tail are connected by singlebonds is called _______________

saturated


glucose together?

  • The subunit used to make starch, cellulose, and glycogen is __________

The sequence of amino acids in a proteinis called the ________ structure

Primary 1o


chitin

A fat is made up of one ________ molecule

and three ___________ molecules.

glycerol

fatty acid


L nitrogen containing group attached which is used to build the exoskeletons of arthropods is called

  • Amino acid molecules used by living things are

  • usually the ___ stereoisomer version.

  • L or D

The covalent bond

that joins sugarmolecules to make

a polysaccharide is

called a

_________ bond.

glycosidic


Secondary 2 nitrogen containing group attached which is used to build the exoskeletons of arthropods is calledo

  • The alpha helix coiling and beta pleated sheet shapes seen in proteins is called the _____________ structure.

Which kinds of bond holds these together?

Hydrogen bonds between the C=O ofone amino acid and the N-H of another


polymerization

The subunits are called___________ and themolecule that is formed iscalled a ______________

monomers

polymer

Image by K.Riedell


D repeating molecule is called

  • Sugar molecules used by living things are

  • usually the ___ stereoisomer version.

  • L or D

The structural polysaccharide found

in plant cell walls that provides supportis ____________

cellulose


Chaparonins repeating molecule is called

  • _____________ are molecules that help proteins fold up into their correct 3D

  • shape by shielding them from the cytoplasmic environment.

Image from: AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reese 7th ed.


hexoses repeating molecule is called

  • Sugars with 6 carbons are called

  • _______________

Sucrose is made by joining which 2 sugars?

Glucose + fructose = sucrose


disaccharides repeating molecule is called

  • Sugars made from 2 sugar monomers are called __________________

Name one of the polysaccharides

you learned about.

Glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin


The kind of covalent bond that joins repeating molecule is called

amino acids together is called

a _________ bond

peptide

http://www.chemicalconnection.org.uk/chemistry/topics/images/pp3.jpg


liquid repeating molecule is called

  • Unsaturated fats and fatty acids are _________ at room temperature.

  • solidliquid

http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/cm1503/lipids.htm


Tertiary 3o


http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpghttp://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • Tell the kind of macromolecule you learned about that could be built from these subunits

Fat (triacylglycerol)

http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/chemfat.html


  • This isomer of glucosehttp://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • in which the -OH on C1 hangs down below the plane of the ring is called

  • _____ glucose

α

Name a polysaccharide that this form ofglucose could be used to make

Starch (amylose or amylopectin) or glycogen


Quaternary 4http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpgo

  • The association of multiple protein chainstogether results in its _____________

http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/hemoglobin.jpg


solidhttp://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • Saturated fats and fatty acids are _________ at room temperature.

  • solidliquid

http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/cm1503/lipids.htm


  • This isomer of glucosehttp://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • in which the -OH on C1 sticks up above the plane of the ring is called

  • _____ glucose

ß

Name a polysaccharide that this form ofglucose could be used to make

Cellulose or chitin (if nitrogen group added)


  • Name this type ofhttp://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • Lipid characterized

  • by a carbon skeleton

  • consisting of 4 rings

  • with various

  • functional groups

steroids


hexoseshttp://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • Sugar molecules with 6 carbons arecalled ________

Which nitrogen base is not found in RNA?

thymine


  • Name this steroidhttp://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • from which other

  • steroids including

  • human sex hormones

  • are synthesized.

cholesterol

Which part of a phospholipid is polar?

Glycerol-phosphate head


http://z.hubpages.com/u/105829_f520.jpghttp://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

A diet high in____________

fats is one of

the factors that

can contribute

to cardiovascular

disease.

saturated

  • saturated unsaturated


Differences:http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

Glycogen Starch

  • CONTRAST: GLYCOGEN and STARCH

Highly branched amylose (unbranched)

amylopectin (less branched than glycogen)

Made by animals made by plants

α 1,4 & 1,6


Fatty acid tailshttp://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • Which part of a phospholipid molecule is non-polar?

ENZYMES

__________ are proteins that act

as catalysts to speed upchemical reactions in living things


2http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • How many fatty acid tails are found in a phospholipid?

Fatty acid molecules consist of long

hydrocarbon chains with which functional

group attached at one end?

carboxyl

http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg


Alike:http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

Made of α –glucose subunits

α 1,4 linkages

1,6 linkages @ branch points

Glycosidic bonds

Glucose polymers

Ways to store glucose

Digestible by humans

  • COMPARE GLYCOGEN and STARCH


lipids

Another name for a fat is

____________________

triacylglycerol


A (ribose)and D (uracil)

Image from LearningExpress.com


condensation hydrophobic?

  • Dehydration synthesis is also called

  • ____________ reaction.

Which nitrogen base is not found in DNA?

uracil


stores hydrophobic?

  • The addition of a phosphate group to ADP

  • ____________ energy.

  • stores releases

Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistrythat studies molecules that contain _______

carbon


releases hydrophobic?

  • The removal of a phosphate group from ATP to form ADP____________ energy.

  • stores releases

TRUE or FALSE

L and D stereoisomers have the samechemical properties because they contain the same number and kinds of atoms


TRUE or FALSE hydrophobic?

L and D stereoisomers have the samechemical properties because they contain the same number and kinds of atoms

FALSEL and D enantiomers can have very differentchemical properties.Ex: L-Dopa is a drug used to treat Parkinson’s disease, but D-Dopa has no effect on patients.

Thalidomide- one enantiomer of used to treat morning sickness; other form caused birth defects


cellulose

Polymers of amino acids are called

______________

polypeptides


Covalent double bond

Energy storage

(1 g of fat has more than twice as much energy as 1 g of polysaccharide)

Cushions vital organs

Insulates body against heat loss (blubber)


Store genetic information hydrophobic?

Protein synthesis

Nucleotide subunits:

ATP: store and transport energy

NAD+ NADP+ FAD Coenzyme A energy/electron carriers

  • List some functions of nucleic acids


ß-glucose

The “kinks” in fatty acids are due to_____________________

cis-double bonds


Dehydration synthesis or condensation

The place on an enzyme where the substrate attaches is called the

_______________

Active site


substrate make a fat?

  • The reactant in an enzyme catalyzed reaction is called a _____________

Name the amino acid that can form disulfide bridges

Cysteine


-SH sulfhydryl

The unwinding and loss of conformationin proteins is called _____________

denaturing


GLYCINE disulfide bridges?

It has an –H

for its R group

  • Which is the only amino acid without anasymmetric carbon?

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/07/Glycine2.png


pH extremes disulfide bridges?

Salt concentration

Temperature (heat)

  • Name an environmental factor that can cause proteins to denature

TRUE or FALSE

Denaturing in proteins is due to the disruption of peptide bonds

False; 1° remains intact but hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and

disulfide bridges in 2° & 3°are disrupted


-SH (sulfhydryl) group forms disulfide bridges disulfide bridges?

cysteine

  • Which amino acid is involved in making disulfidebridges to form the tertiary structure of proteins?

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/L-Cysteine.png

http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Disulfide_bridge.htm


Double stranded Single stranded disulfide bridges?

Contain A, T, C, G Contain A, U, C, G

No uracil No thymine

Deoxyribose Ribose

Store genetic info Carry info from DNA to cell

Protein synthesis

  • COMPARE and CONTRAST:

  • DNARNA

BOTH:

Nucleic acids, made of nucleotide subunits, are polymers,

Information molecules, joined using dehydration synthesis,

Contain pentose sugars and nitrogen bases,

have phosphate-sugar backbones,


purines disulfide bridges?

  • Nitrogenous bases consisting of 2 ringsare called _______________

The two sugar-phosphate backbones ina DNA molecule run in opposite directions,

an arrangement referred to as

___________________

antiparallel


pyrimidines disulfide bridges?

  • Nitrogenous bases consisting of 1 ringare called _______________

Name the subunit used to build nucleic

acids which consists of a pentose sugar,

nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.

nucleotide


The nitrogen bases that join by disulfide bridges?

hydrogen bonds to form the stair stepsof the DNA ladder always pair up so that

_________________ match up with each other.

a pyrimidine-a purine

two purines

two pyrimidines

a pyrimidine-a purine


Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) and Uracil (U) disulfide bridges?

  • Give an example of a pyrimidine

In a DNA molecule guanine always pairs upwith _____________

cytosine


C (deoxyribose)and F (thymine)

Image from LearningExpress.com


trioses disulfide bridges?

  • Carbohydrates that contain 5 carbon atoms are called _____________

Which carbon is important in determiningwhether a glucose molecule is in theα or ß form?

C1


thymine disulfide bridges?

  • In a DNA molecule adenine always pairs

  • with _____________

A pentose sugar with only the nitrogen baseattached is called a _____________

nucleoside


amphipathic disulfide bridges?

  • Molecules with both polar and nonpolar parts are called _______________

Molecules containing only hydrogen and

carbon are called ________________

hydrocarbons


Glycerol backbone

Multiple phobic fatty acid chains attached

By ester linkages

2 fatty acid chains 3 fatty acid chains

phosphate group nonpolar

Amphipathic(polar head; nonpolar tails)


Cysteine disulfide bridges?

methionine

  • Which two amino acids contain SULFUR ?

methionine

Look at these structures. Why can’t methionine formdisulfide bridges?

No –SH group; it’s got a methyl group

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/L-Cysteine.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/L-Methionine.png


DNA →RNA → proteins

Write the chemical formula for amonosaccharide with 3 carbons

C3H6O3


maltose disulfide bridges?

  • What disaccharide does it make?

  • Glucose + glucose = ______________

  • Glucose + fructose = ____________

  • Glucose + galactose = ______________

sucrose

lactose


http://altopower.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/sugar.jpg disulfide bridges?

sucrose

  • Table sugar is called ____________

Which parts of a nucleotide form thebackbone of a nucleic acid?

Sugar and phosphate


amylose amylopectin glycogen


Saturated disulfide bridges?

  • ___________ fats are more common in

  • animals than plants.

TRUE or FALSE

Amino acids be enantiomers

True; the center carbon is attached to 4different groups; there are D and L formsof all amino acids except glycine


https://sharepoint.cisat.jmu.edu/isat/klevicca/Web/NMR_2002/glycine/Glycine2.gifhttps://sharepoint.cisat.jmu.edu/isat/klevicca/Web/NMR_2002/glycine/Glycine2.gif

  • Name the only amino acid of the 20 amino acids used to make proteins that doesn’t have a stereoisomer (enantiomer)

GLYCINE

It does NOThave a chiralcarbon; it doesnot have 4different groups

attached


  • Amylase is an enzyme that can break https://sharepoint.cisat.jmu.edu/isat/klevicca/Web/NMR_2002/glycine/Glycine2.gif

  • glyosidic linkages between α-glucose monomers.

  • Which of the following could amylase

  • break down?

  • cellulose glycogen amylopectin starch chitin

Glycogen, amylopectin, starch

? From AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reese 7th edition Chapter 5 self quiz


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