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AP BIOLOGY Chapters 4 & 5. http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/740/55147.JPG http://www.yellowtang.org/images/macromolecules1_tb_784.jpg. Identify the following functional groups. sulfhydryl. carbonyl. carboxyl. Hydroxyl (alcohol). phosphate. amino.

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AP BIOLOGY Chapters 4 & 5

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AP BIOLOGYChapters 4 & 5

http://www.dkimages.com/discover/previews/740/55147.JPG

http://www.yellowtang.org/images/macromolecules1_tb_784.jpg


  • Identify the following functional groups

sulfhydryl

carbonyl

carboxyl

Hydroxyl(alcohol)

phosphate

amino

Images from: http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/week2/2webimages/Groups_5.gif

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phosphate


  • Identify the kind of molecules

ketone

aldehyde

Images from: http://www.chemcases.com/nutra/nutra1b.htm


  • Identify the asymmetric carbon in the following molecule

B is asymmetric; it has 4 different groups attached

Campbell and Reece 7th edition


  • Identify the type of geometric isomeras TRANS or CIS

CIS TRANS

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/fig/0170950206002.png


adding a phosphate group to ADP

  • Cells store energy by ________________

  • a) Adding a phosphate group to ADP

  • b) Removing a phosphate group from ATP

Compounds containing carbon are called

___________

organic


carbonyl

phosphate

  • IDENTIFY THE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN THIS TRIPEPTIDE

sulfhydryl

carboxyl

amino

hydroxyl

carbonyl

? Modified from Cambell and Reece; AP Biology 7th edition Chapter 4 Self quiz


4

  • Carbon atoms are able to form bonds with

  • ___ different atoms at the same time.

The ionized form of an amino group has a___ charge at cellular pH 7.2

positive

http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/biochemistry/ionized%20amino%20group.gif


It can form 4 covalent bonds

  • Carbon is tetravalent. What does this mean?


  • These are examples of which kind of isomer you learned abouut?

geometric

http://www.emeraldinsight.com/fig/0170950206002.png


  • Molecules that are mirror images of each other that differ in spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon are called ________________

Enantiomers (stereoisomers)

How are isomers are different from isotopes?

ISOMERS are molecules with the same

molecular formula but different structures

ISOTOPES are atoms with the same number

of protons but different numbers of neutrons


Nonpolar

  • Hydrocarbons contain many _________carbon-hydrogen bonds.

  • polar nonpolar

The ionized form of a carboxyl group has a___ charge at cellular pH 7.2

negative

http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20101/bio%20101%20lectures/biochemistry/biochemi.htm


Chemical process that splits (lysis) water molecules (hydro) and breaks a covalent bond as the OH- and H groups are added back to the original monomer is called:

hydrolysis

http://www.usd116.org/apalla/biology/unit3/notes/3notes1.htm


  • Chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule

Condensation reaction (Dehydration synthesis)

Name the four main classes of

biological macromolecules

Proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids


monosaccharides

  • The simplest sugars are called

  • ________________

GLYCOGEN

_____________ is the highly branched

polysaccharide used by animal cells to

store glucose. Also called animal starch

NONPOLAR

Lipids are____________ molecules

polar nonpolar


Chemical process that splits molecules

by the addition of water.

hydrolysis

http://www.usd116.org/apalla/biology/unit3/notes/3notes1.htm


dissaccharides

  • Molecules made of two monosaccharides

  • are called ______________

The subunits joined to make proteinsare _______________

amino acids

The major polysaccharide component

found in plant cell walls is

_____________________

cellulose


6

4

1

3

2

  • Use the correct numbering sequence to identify the number of this carbon

5


polysaccharides

  • Carbohydrates made from joining manysugar molecules together are called

  • ____________________

Glucose and fructose can be joined to makesucrose via a ___________________ reaction.

dehydration synthesis


  • The two interconvertible forms of glucose differ in the placement of the hydroxyl group attached to the #1 carbon.

  • Label the two forms as α (alpha) or ß (beta)

BETA ALPHA Hydroxyl is up Hydroxyl is down

http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/images/543Halphabetaglucose.gif


starch

  • Amylose and amylopectin are both forms of _____________

How are these different?

Amylose is unbranched and joined only

by α 1,4 linkages

Amylopectin is branched with 1,6 linkagesat the branch points


Starch is made up of glucose rings in the α (alpha) form joined by 1,4 linkages; helical; can be branched; humans can digest this

Cellulose is made up of glucose rings in the ß (beta) form so every other glucose is upside down the respect to its neighbors; joined with 1,4 linkages; straight-never branched; hydrogen bonds join parallel molecules into microfibrils; humans can’t digest this

  • How are starch and cellulose different?


  • A structural polysaccharide of plant cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by β-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.

cellulose

Where is chitin found in nature?

Cell walls of fungi;

exoskeletons of arthropods


  • Which type of bonds hold the parallel cellulose strands together?

Hydrogen bonds hold about 80 cellulose molecules together to make a microfibril

Image modified from: Campbell and Reece; AP Biology 7th edition


Image modified from: http://www.yskf.jp/yskf_en/img_03/03_01.gif

N-acetylglucosamine

(NAG)

  • This subunit is _________________

It can be joined together in long chains by

ß 1,4 linkages to make _________

chitin


  • Which kind of fatty acids have kinks in their shape so that they don’t pack closely together- saturated or unsaturated?

unsaturated

Another name for a triacylglycerol molecule

fat


  • What kind of bond is a disulfide bridge?

  • ionic covalent hydrogen

covalent

A fatty acid possessing one or more doublebonds between carbons in the hydrocarbontail is called _______________

unsaturated


  • Which type of bonds hold the parallel cellulose strands together?

Hydrogen bonds

A fatty acid in which all carbons in the

hydrocarbon tail are connected by singlebonds is called _______________

saturated


glucose

  • The subunit used to make starch, cellulose, and glycogen is __________

The sequence of amino acids in a proteinis called the ________ structure

Primary 1o


  • The polysaccharide made up of glucose subunits with a nitrogen containing group attached which is used to build the exoskeletons of arthropods is called_______________

chitin

A fat is made up of one ________ molecule

and three ___________ molecules.

glycerol

fatty acid


L

  • Amino acid molecules used by living things are

  • usually the ___ stereoisomer version.

  • L or D

The covalent bond

that joins sugarmolecules to make

a polysaccharide is

called a

_________ bond.

glycosidic


Secondary 2o

  • The alpha helix coiling and beta pleated sheet shapes seen in proteins is called the _____________ structure.

Which kinds of bond holds these together?

Hydrogen bonds between the C=O ofone amino acid and the N-H of another


  • The addition of smaller similar subuints to build a large repeating molecule is called

polymerization

The subunits are called___________ and themolecule that is formed iscalled a ______________

monomers

polymer

Image by K.Riedell


D

  • Sugar molecules used by living things are

  • usually the ___ stereoisomer version.

  • L or D

The structural polysaccharide found

in plant cell walls that provides supportis ____________

cellulose


Chaparonins

  • _____________ are molecules that help proteins fold up into their correct 3D

  • shape by shielding them from the cytoplasmic environment.

Image from: AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reese 7th ed.


hexoses

  • Sugars with 6 carbons are called

  • _______________

Sucrose is made by joining which 2 sugars?

Glucose + fructose = sucrose


disaccharides

  • Sugars made from 2 sugar monomers are called __________________

Name one of the polysaccharides

you learned about.

Glycogen, starch, cellulose, chitin


The kind of covalent bond that joins

amino acids together is called

a _________ bond

peptide

http://www.chemicalconnection.org.uk/chemistry/topics/images/pp3.jpg


liquid

  • Unsaturated fats and fatty acids are _________ at room temperature.

  • solidliquid

http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/cm1503/lipids.htm


  • The folding of a protein molecule into its 3D shape due to the interactions of R side chains involved hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, an disulfide bridges result in its ___________ structure.

Tertiary 3o


http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg

  • Tell the kind of macromolecule you learned about that could be built from these subunits

Fat (triacylglycerol)

http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/chemfat.html


  • This isomer of glucose

  • in which the -OH on C1 hangs down below the plane of the ring is called

  • _____ glucose

α

Name a polysaccharide that this form ofglucose could be used to make

Starch (amylose or amylopectin) or glycogen


Quaternary 4o

  • The association of multiple protein chainstogether results in its _____________

http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/hemoglobin.jpg


solid

  • Saturated fats and fatty acids are _________ at room temperature.

  • solidliquid

http://io.uwinnipeg.ca/~simmons/cm1503/lipids.htm


  • This isomer of glucose

  • in which the -OH on C1 sticks up above the plane of the ring is called

  • _____ glucose

ß

Name a polysaccharide that this form ofglucose could be used to make

Cellulose or chitin (if nitrogen group added)


  • Name this type of

  • Lipid characterized

  • by a carbon skeleton

  • consisting of 4 rings

  • with various

  • functional groups

steroids


hexoses

  • Sugar molecules with 6 carbons arecalled ________

Which nitrogen base is not found in RNA?

thymine


  • Name this steroid

  • from which other

  • steroids including

  • human sex hormones

  • are synthesized.

cholesterol

Which part of a phospholipid is polar?

Glycerol-phosphate head


http://z.hubpages.com/u/105829_f520.jpg

A diet high in____________

fats is one of

the factors that

can contribute

to cardiovascular

disease.

saturated

  • saturated unsaturated


Differences:

Glycogen Starch

  • CONTRAST: GLYCOGEN and STARCH

Highly branched amylose (unbranched)

amylopectin (less branched than glycogen)

Made by animals made by plants

α 1,4 & 1,6


Fatty acid tails

  • Which part of a phospholipid molecule is non-polar?

ENZYMES

__________ are proteins that act

as catalysts to speed upchemical reactions in living things


2

  • How many fatty acid tails are found in a phospholipid?

Fatty acid molecules consist of long

hydrocarbon chains with which functional

group attached at one end?

carboxyl

http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/thog4n0/public_html/fatyacid.jpg


Alike:

Made of α –glucose subunits

α 1,4 linkages

1,6 linkages @ branch points

Glycosidic bonds

Glucose polymers

Ways to store glucose

Digestible by humans

  • COMPARE GLYCOGEN and STARCH


  • Which of the four biomolecule groups you learned is hydrophobic?

lipids

Another name for a fat is

____________________

triacylglycerol


  • Which of these structures would NOT

  • be found in a DNA molecule?

A (ribose)and D (uracil)

Image from LearningExpress.com


condensation

  • Dehydration synthesis is also called

  • ____________ reaction.

Which nitrogen base is not found in DNA?

uracil


stores

  • The addition of a phosphate group to ADP

  • ____________ energy.

  • stores releases

Organic chemistry is the branch of chemistrythat studies molecules that contain _______

carbon


releases

  • The removal of a phosphate group from ATP to form ADP____________ energy.

  • stores releases

TRUE or FALSE

L and D stereoisomers have the samechemical properties because they contain the same number and kinds of atoms


TRUE or FALSE

L and D stereoisomers have the samechemical properties because they contain the same number and kinds of atoms

FALSEL and D enantiomers can have very differentchemical properties.Ex: L-Dopa is a drug used to treat Parkinson’s disease, but D-Dopa has no effect on patients.

Thalidomide- one enantiomer of used to treat morning sickness; other form caused birth defects


  • Name the structural polysaccharidefound in the cell walls of plants thatprovides support

cellulose

Polymers of amino acids are called

______________

polypeptides


  • Chemical bond in which atoms share

  • 2 pairs of electrons

  • List some functions of fat

Covalent double bond

Energy storage

(1 g of fat has more than twice as much energy as 1 g of polysaccharide)

Cushions vital organs

Insulates body against heat loss (blubber)


Store genetic information

Protein synthesis

Nucleotide subunits:

ATP: store and transport energy

NAD+ NADP+ FAD Coenzyme A energy/electron carriers

  • List some functions of nucleic acids


  • Which form of glucose is used to buildcellulose molecules?

ß-glucose

The “kinks” in fatty acids are due to_____________________

cis-double bonds


  • Which chemical reaction joins glycerol and fatty acids to make a fat?

Dehydration synthesis or condensation

The place on an enzyme where the substrate attaches is called the

_______________

Active site


substrate

  • The reactant in an enzyme catalyzed reaction is called a _____________

Name the amino acid that can form disulfide bridges

Cysteine


  • Which functional group is responsible for the formation of disulfide bridges?

-SH sulfhydryl

The unwinding and loss of conformationin proteins is called _____________

denaturing


GLYCINE

It has an –H

for its R group

  • Which is the only amino acid without anasymmetric carbon?

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/07/Glycine2.png


pH extremes

Salt concentration

Temperature (heat)

  • Name an environmental factor that can cause proteins to denature

TRUE or FALSE

Denaturing in proteins is due to the disruption of peptide bonds

False; 1° remains intact but hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds and

disulfide bridges in 2° & 3°are disrupted


-SH (sulfhydryl) group forms disulfide bridges

cysteine

  • Which amino acid is involved in making disulfidebridges to form the tertiary structure of proteins?

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/L-Cysteine.png

http://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/Disulfide_bridge.htm


Double strandedSingle stranded

Contain A, T, C, GContain A, U, C, G

No uracilNo thymine

DeoxyriboseRibose

Store genetic infoCarry info from DNA to cell

Protein synthesis

  • COMPARE and CONTRAST:

  • DNARNA

BOTH:

Nucleic acids, made of nucleotide subunits, are polymers,

Information molecules, joined using dehydration synthesis,

Contain pentose sugars and nitrogen bases,

have phosphate-sugar backbones,


purines

  • Nitrogenous bases consisting of 2 ringsare called _______________

The two sugar-phosphate backbones ina DNA molecule run in opposite directions,

an arrangement referred to as

___________________

antiparallel


pyrimidines

  • Nitrogenous bases consisting of 1 ringare called _______________

Name the subunit used to build nucleic

acids which consists of a pentose sugar,

nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.

nucleotide


The nitrogen bases that join by

hydrogen bonds to form the stair stepsof the DNA ladder always pair up so that

_________________ match up with each other.

a pyrimidine-a purine

two purines

two pyrimidines

a pyrimidine-a purine


Cytosine (C), Thymine (T) and Uracil (U)

  • Give an example of a pyrimidine

In a DNA molecule guanine always pairs upwith _____________

cytosine


  • Which of these structures would NOT

  • be found in an RNA molecule?

C (deoxyribose)and F (thymine)

Image from LearningExpress.com


trioses

  • Carbohydrates that contain 5 carbon atoms are called _____________

Which carbon is important in determiningwhether a glucose molecule is in theα or ß form?

C1


thymine

  • In a DNA molecule adenine always pairs

  • with _____________

A pentose sugar with only the nitrogen baseattached is called a _____________

nucleoside


amphipathic

  • Molecules with both polar and nonpolar parts are called _______________

Molecules containing only hydrogen and

carbon are called ________________

hydrocarbons


  • Compare and contrast phospholipids and triglycerides (fat)

  • BOTH

  • PHOSPHOLIPIDSTRIGLYCERIDES

Glycerol backbone

Multiple phobic fatty acid chains attached

By ester linkages

2 fatty acid chains 3 fatty acid chains

phosphate group nonpolar

Amphipathic(polar head; nonpolar tails)


Cysteine

methionine

  • Which two amino acids contain SULFUR ?

methionine

Look at these structures. Why can’t methionine formdisulfide bridges?

No –SH group; it’s got a methyl group

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/L-Cysteine.png

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/L-Methionine.png


  • Tell the central dogma of molecular biology

  • that describes how information flows

  • in eukaryotic cells

DNA →RNA → proteins

Write the chemical formula for amonosaccharide with 3 carbons

C3H6O3


maltose

  • What disaccharide does it make?

  • Glucose + glucose = ______________

  • Glucose + fructose = ____________

  • Glucose + galactose = ______________

sucrose

lactose


http://altopower.files.wordpress.com/2008/04/sugar.jpg

sucrose

  • Table sugar is called ____________

Which parts of a nucleotide form thebackbone of a nucleic acid?

Sugar and phosphate


  • Put the following in order from least to most branched…

  • Glycogen amyloseamylopectin

amylose amylopectin glycogen


Saturated

  • ___________ fats are more common in

  • animals than plants.

TRUE or FALSE

Amino acids be enantiomers

True; the center carbon is attached to 4different groups; there are D and L formsof all amino acids except glycine


https://sharepoint.cisat.jmu.edu/isat/klevicca/Web/NMR_2002/glycine/Glycine2.gif

  • Name the only amino acid of the 20 amino acids used to make proteins that doesn’t have a stereoisomer (enantiomer)

GLYCINE

It does NOThave a chiralcarbon; it doesnot have 4different groups

attached


  • Amylase is an enzyme that can break

  • glyosidic linkages between α-glucose monomers.

  • Which of the following could amylase

  • break down?

  • cellulose glycogen amylopectin starch chitin

Glycogen, amylopectin, starch

? From AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reese 7th edition Chapter 5 self quiz


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