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Chapter 18. Classification. Section 18-1: History of Taxonomy. Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history.

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chapter 18

Chapter 18

Classification

section 18 1 history of taxonomy
Section 18-1: History of Taxonomy
  • Taxonomy is the branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history.
  • The first classification system was set up by Greek philosopher Aristotle, he classified organisms as plants or animals.
section 18 1 history of taxonomy1
Section 18-1: History of Taxonomy
  • Swedish naturalist, Carolus Linnaeus came up with the next famous system of classification.
  • He used an organisms morphology, structure and function, to place it in the system.
section 18 1 history of taxonomy2
Section 18-1: History of Taxonomy
  • The Linnean system is a nested hierarchy of seven different levels:
    • KINGDOM
    • PHYLUM
    • CLASS
    • ORDER
    • FAMILY
    • GENUS
    • SPECIES
section 18 1 history of taxonomy3
Section 18-1: History of Taxonomy
  • The names of organisms in Linnean classification are made up of two parts (binomial nomeclature).
  • The first part is the genus and the second part is the species identifier, usually a descriptive term.
section 18 1 history of taxonomy4
Section 18-1: History of Taxonomy
  • Some organisms are very similar and may only be separated by region or by one characteristic.
  • In plants similar organisms with very small variations are known as varieties.
    • EXAMPLE: Peaches and Nectarines are varieties of, Prunus persica (Peach tree)
section 18 1 history of taxonomy5
Section 18-1: History of Taxonomy
  • Variations among animals are referred to as subspecies.
    • EXAMPLE: Brown bears and grizzly bears are subspecies of the brown bear, the difference is the size of the bear and the region in which it is located.
section 18 1 history of taxonomy6
Section 18-1: History of Taxonomy
  • Modern classification of organisms is done by phylogeny which is evolutionary history.
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