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United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Industrial Training & Graduation Projects Unit PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Industrial Training & Graduation Projects Unit. PRODUCTION OF ACETON FROM ISO-PROPANOL. Presented By Eida AlMansouri 980724217 Rehab Alkaabi 199904156 Halima Abdullah 199902518. Summary. Primary objectives .

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United Arab Emirates University

College of Engineering

Industrial Training & Graduation Projects Unit

PRODUCTION OF ACETON FROM ISO-PROPANOL

Presented By

Eida AlMansouri 980724217

Rehab Alkaabi 199904156

Halima Abdullah 199902518


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Summary

Primary objectives

Design a chemical plant that uses isopropyl alcohol (IPA)

as the raw material for the production of a food-grade

Acetone and to asses the design from economical,

environmental and safety perspectives.

The purpose of our project is to select the

most suitable process or method


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Introduction

Industrial Production Methods of Acetone

Oxidation

of Hydrocarbons

2-propanol dehydrogenation process

Cumene peroxidation

Hercules process

Allied process


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Oxidation of Hydrocarbons

The chemical reaction in this process is:                                                OOH

                          Oxygen             | C6H5CH(CH3)2 ---------> C6H5C(CH3)2 -----> C6H5OH + CH3COCH3

Cumene peroxidation process block flow diagram


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Water

Off-gas (H2)

Acetone scrubber

Phase separator

Reactor

IPA

Acetone

Acetone separator

waste water

+ IPA

2-propanol Dehydrogenation

Iso-propanol dehydrogenation process block flow diagram.

Recycled IPA

Process reaction

CH3CHOHCH3 -----> CH3COCH3 + H2


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Comparing between cumene peroxidation and dehydrogenation of iso-propanol

  • The by-products in the first method are very toxic materials (e.g. phenol & heavy hydrocarbons)

  • The main product for cumene peroxidation is phenol not acetone which we need to produce

  • cumene peroxidation need separation and purification units more than the iso-propanol dehydrogenation process which will increase the cost of production.


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Properties and Uses of Materials

Materials

Isopropanol

Acetone

Hydrogen


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Properties and Uses of Materials

Isopropanol

  • A colorless liquid .

  • Miscible with water.

  • It melts at -89°C and boils at 82.3°C.

  • Oxidation of isopropanol is now the major source of acetone.


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Physical and chemical Properties


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Properties and Uses of Materials

Isopropanol usage

  • As a coolant in beer manufacture.

  • A coupling agent .

  • Production of polyvinyl fluoride.

  • IPA is used also in the production of acetone .

  • (oxidation of isopropanol is now the major source of acetone).

  • Production of other chemicals (such as isopropyl acetate and

  • Isopropylamine.


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Properties and Uses of Materials

Acetone

  • It is also called dimethyl ketone,

  • A colorless liquid .

  • It evaporates easily.

  • Flammable.

  • Dissolves in water. .


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Physical and chemical Properties


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Properties and Uses of Materials

Acetone usage

  • Make plastic, fibers, drugs, and other chemicals.

  • Dissolve other substances.

  • Production of methyl methacrylate, methacrylic acid,

  • and higher methacrylate .

  • Drug and pharmaceutical applications


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Properties and Uses of Materials

Hydrogen

  • Hydrogen is a colorless

  • Odorless.

  • Combustible gas.

  • So light


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Physical and chemical Properties


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Properties and Uses of Materials

Hydrogen usage

  • Important in the proton-proton reaction.

  • Liquid hydrogen is used in cryogenics.

  • Study of superconductivity.

  • Use in welding.

  • The hydrogenation of fats and oils.

  • Methanol production .

  • Hydrocracking.


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Process Flow Diagram


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Process Feed

  • What is azeotrope?

  • Feed properties:

    • 88% IPA

    • 12% water

    • Boiling point temperature= 80oC


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Reaction Catalysts

What is the catalysts?

It is a substance, usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants, that modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the process.


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Shapes of Catalyst

Cylindrical

Spherical

Cubic


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Reaction Catalyst

Catalysts and the required heating


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Conversion

The reactor conversion about 80%

Overall conversion is about 99.5%


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Material balance

Production rate=10000Kg/hr of 99.9wt% acetone

Conversion=99.5%


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Dehydrogenation process Equipments

Pump (P-001):

The pump increases the pressure of the feed from 1.01 bar to 2.8 bar.

Heat Exchanger (E-001):

This unit heats, vaporizes, and superheats the feed to 240 oC at 2.8 bar.

Reactor (R-001):

In this Reactor only the following reaction occurs in the presence of the catalyst:


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Fired Heater (H-001):

This unit heats the molten salt that provides the heat to the reactor.

Heat Exchanger (E-002):

This unit cools and partially condenses the reactor effluent. The exit pressure and temperature are 2.4 bar and 45oC respectively.

Heat Exchanger (E-003):

This unit cools and partially condenses the reactor effluent. The exit pressure and temperature are 2.4 bar and 20oC respectively.


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Separation Vessel (V-001):

This unit disengages the vapor and liquid effluent from E-003. In this separator, all the hydrogen in the feed enters the vapor phase. All other components distribute according to Raoult’s Law at the temperature of E-003.

Absorber (T-001):

Acetone is recovered by absorption into pure process water.


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Distillation Column (T-002):

In this distillation column, the acetone, IPA-water, and water in stream 15 are separated. The column operates at 1.4 bar. The acetone must be 99.9% pure and 99.5 mol% of the acetone in the feed must be recovered in stream 16. Stream 17 contains most of the water and IPA-water from stream 15.


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Heat Exchanger (E-004):

In this exchanger, the contents of stream16 are condensed from saturated vapor to saturated liquid.

Heat Exchanger (E-005):

In this exchanger, the flow of stream17 is vaporized from saturated liquid to saturated vapor at 1.4 bar.


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Distillation Column (T-003):

This additional distillation column is to process stream 17 further. This column can recover a near azeotropic mixture of IPA-water (88 wt% IPA -with all the acetone remaining in stream 17) out from the top, with residual water and IPA out from the bottom. The top product will be recycled to the feed of the process. The bottom product will go to wastewater treatment. This column operates at 1.2 bar.


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Heat Exchanger (E-006):

In this exchanger, the contents of stream18 are condensed from saturated vapor to saturated liquid.

Heat Exchanger (E-007):

In this exchanger, the flow of stream19 is vaporized from saturated liquid to saturated vapor at 1.2 bar.


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H2

Process

IPA-Water +Water

Acetone

Water

Material Balance on the Process

  • Reaction Formula:

  • Calculations Basis:


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Results


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H2

Acetone

IPA-H2O

Reactor

IPA-water

Material Balance on the Reactor


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The gas in the container is in equilibriumwith the liquid or solid.

Microscopic equilibrium between gas and liquid. Note that the rate of evaporation of the liquid is equal to the rate of condensation of the gas.


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Vi, yi

Fi, zi

Li, xi

Material Balance on tow phase separator


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Li

G out

G in

L out

Material Balance on absorber


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Acetone

Feed

IPA-water + Water

Material Balance on the 1st Distillation Column


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IPA-water

IPA-water + Water

Waste Water

Material Balance on the 2ndDistillation Column


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Energy balance

  • Objective

  • Estimate the cooling water required for the process

  • Determine the steam required for the process

  • Find the fuel required for the process

  • Estimate the overall energy requirement for the process.

  • Estimate the refrigerated water required for the process


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Energy balances have been done on the following equipment

  • Feed Pump (P-001)

  • Vaporizer ( E-001 )

  • Reactor (R-001)

  • Fired Heater (H-001)

  • Exchangers (E-002) and (E-003)

  • Condensers (E-004) and (E-006)

  • Reboilers (E-005) and (E-007)

  • Acetone distillation column (T-002)

  • IPA distillation column (T-003)


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Feed Pump (P-001)

Table (1): IPA-water flow rates inlet and outlet the feed pump (P-001)


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Calculation

  • Results

Table (2): Power requirement for feed pump (P-001).


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Vaporizer ( E-001 )

Table (3): IPA-water inlet and outlet flow rates to the evaporator (E-001)


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  • Calculation

  • Results

Table (4): Duty and amount of stream used in the evaporator (E-001).


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  • Reactor (R-001)

Table (5): IPA-water inlet and outlet flow rates to the reactor (R-001).


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  • Calculation

  • Results

Table (6): Duty and amount of fuel used in the reactor (R-001).


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  • Exchangers (E-002)

Table (7): Products inlet and outlet flow rates to the condenser (E-002).


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  • Calculation

  • The duty of the cooler is calculated directly from Hysis at the given conditions

  • Results

Table (8): Duty and amount of cooling water needed in the condenser (E-002).


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  • Exchangers (E-003)

Table (9): Products inlet and outlet flow rates to the 2nd condenser (E-003).


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  • Calculation

  • The duty of the cooler is calculated directly from Hysis at the given conditions

  • Results

Table (10): Duty and amount of refrigerated water for condenser (E-003)


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  • Acetone distillation column (T-002)

Table (11): Products and feed flow rates of the acetone distillation column.


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  • Calculation

Rop =1.5* Rmin


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  • Results

Table (12): Heat duties and amount of utilities needed in the acetone column.


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  • IPA distillation column (T-003)

Table (13): Products and feed inlet and outlet flow rates for the IPA-water distillation column.


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  • Results

  • Doing the same calculation for first distillation.

Table (14): Duties and amount of utilities needed in the IPA column.


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Cost Estimation

C’= 13000 N Q0.615

Where C’ = capital cost in US dollars

N = number of functional units = 8

Q = plant capacity = 10,000 kg/h = 75,600 ton/year


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Environmental Impact


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Safety and Environmental Impact

  • Acetone

  • Routes of Exposure:

  • Inhalation

  • Skin absorption

  • Eye contact

  • Emergency and first aid:

  • Inhalation: Remove patient to a location away from the source of exposure. Give oxygen if breathing is difficult.

  • Skin: Remove contaminated clothing and shoes. Wash affected area with large amounts of water.

  • Eye: Wash immediately with large amounts of water until no evidence of chemical remains.

  • Personal protection:

  • Protective Clothing:Wear appropriate clothing to prevent repeated.

  • Eye Protection:Safety glasses, chemical goggles.


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  • Flammability information :

  • Flash Point: 0oF

  • Auto ignition Temperature: 869oF

  • Lower Explosive Limit: 2.5

  • Upper Explosive Limit: 12.8

  • Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards: Acetone is extremely flammable.

  • Special Firefighting Procedures: Use water spray to cool fire-exposed containers and to dilute and reduce fire intensity. Use water spray to disperse vapors.

  • Handling and Storing Precautions: Store in a cool, clean, well-ventilated fireproof storage room.


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  • Azoetrop Iso-propanol

  • Environmental protection:

  • Spill or leak procedures: Wear appropriate respiratory protection and protective clothing spilled material. Transfer to secure containers. Where necessary, collect using absorbent media.

  • Waste disposal: All recovered material should be packaged, labeled and transported

  • Handling, storage and usage:

  • Protect container against physical damage. All ignition sources should be eliminated. Smoking should be prohibited in the storage and usage areas. Keep material packaged in drums or bottles out of sun and away from heat.

  • Employee protection:

  • Control measure: Handle in the presence of adequate ventilation.

  • Respiratory protection: Respirators should be selected based on the form and concentration of contaminant in air.

  • Protective clothing: Wear gloves and protective clothing or repeated skin contact.

  • Eye protection: Wear safety glasses.


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  • Fire and explosive hazards:

  • Flash point: 53º F

  • Auto-ignition temperature: 685º F

  • Flammable limit in air, %by volume: lower: 2.5 upper: 12.0

  • Fire fighting procedure:Use dry chemical, “alcohol” foam or water may be ineffective, water spray may be used to flush spills away from exposures and to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures.

  • Unusual fire & explosion hazards:Firefighters should wear self-contained breathing


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  • Hydrogen

  • Personal protective equipment:

  • Eye / Face protection:No eye protection is normally required.

  • Skin protection: No protective clothing is normally required.

  • Toxicological information:

  • Eye effects: It is based on an evaluation of the data for the components.

  • Skin effects: It is based on an evaluation of the data for the components.

  • Acute oral effects: It is based on an evaluation of the data for the components.

  • Acute inhalation effects: It is based on an evaluation of the data for the components.

  • Environmental fate: This material is volatile and is expected to partition to air.

  • This material is expected to biodegrade under certain environmental conditions.


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  • Flammable properties:

  • Flash point: -200F (-128.88C)

  • Auto-ignition: 932F (500C)

  • Flammability limits (% by volume in air): Lower: 4.0 Upper: 75

  • Fire fighting instructions: If flames are accidentally extinguished, explosive re-ignition may occur. Eliminate ignition sources.

  • Accidental release measures: Stop the source of the leak or release.

  • Eliminate all sources of ignition in vicinity of released gas.

  • Handling and storage:Use or store only in a well-ventilated area. Keep container closed when material is not in use.


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Conclusion


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Thanks


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