Introduction to accounting and business
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These slides should be viewed using the presentation mode (click the icon to start presentation). Introduction to Accounting and Business. Chapter 1. Learning Objective 1. Describe the nature of a business, the role of accounting, and ethics in business.

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Introduction to accounting and business

These slides should be viewed using the presentation mode (click the icon to start presentation).

Introduction to Accounting and Business

Chapter 1


Learning objective 1

Learning Objective 1

Describe the nature of a business, the role of accounting, and ethics in business.


Nature of business and accounting

Nature of Business and Accounting

A business is an organization in which basic resources (inputs), such as materials and labor, are assembled and processed to provide goods or services (outputs) to customers.

LO 1


Nature of business and accounting1

Nature of Business and Accounting

LO 1

  • The objective of most businesses is to earn a profit.

  • Profit is the difference between the amounts received from customers for goods or services and the amounts paid for the inputs used to provide the goods or services.


The role of accounting in business

The Role of Accounting in Business

Accounting can be defined as an information system that provides reports to users about the economic activities and condition of a business.

LO 1


Introduction to accounting and business

The process by which accounting provides information to users is as follows:

Identify users.

Assess users’ information needs.

Design the accounting information system to meet users’ needs.

Record economic data about business activities and events.

Prepare accounting reports for users.

LO 1

The Role of Accounting in Business


Managerial accounting

Managerial Accounting

The area of accounting that provides internal users with information is called managerial accounting or management accounting.

Managerial accountants employed by a business are employed in private accounting.

LO 1


Financial accounting

Financial Accounting

The area of accounting that provides external users with information is called financial accounting.

The objective of financial accounting is to provide relevant and timely information for the decision-making needs of users outside of the business.

General-purpose financial statements are one type of financial accounting report that is distributed to external users.

LO 1


Role of ethics in accounting and business

Role of Ethics in Accounting and Business

The objective of accounting is to provide relevant, timely information for user decision making.

Accountants must behave in an ethical manner so that the information they provide users will be trustworthy and, thus, useful for decision making.

Ethics are moral principles that guide the conduct of individuals.

LO 1


Opportunities for accountants

Opportunities for Accountants

Accountants and their staff who provide services on a fee basis are said to be employed in public accounting.

Accountants employed by a business firm or a not-for-profit organization are said to be employed in private accounting.

Public accountants who have met a state’s education, experience, and examination requirements may become Certified PublicAccountants (CPAs).

LO 1


Learning objective 2

Learning Objective 2

Describe the nature of a business, the role of accounting, and ethics in business.

Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.


Generally accepted accounting principles

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

Financial accountants follow generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in preparing reports.

Within the U.S., the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has the primary responsibility for developing accounting principles.

LO 2


Introduction to accounting and business

LO 2

Generally Accepted Accounting Principles

  • The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), an agency of the U.S. government, has authority over the accounting and financial disclosures for companies whose shares of ownership (stock) are traded and sold to the public.

  • Many countries outside the United States use generally accepted accounting principles adopted by the International AccountingStandards Board (IASB).


Business entity concept

Business Entity Concept

Under the business entity concept, the activities of a business are recorded separately from the activities of its owners, creditors, or other businesses.

LO 2


Proprietorship

Proprietorship

A proprietorship is owned by one individual.

70% of business entities in the U.S. are proprietorships.

They are easy and cheap to organize.

Resources are limited to those of the owner.

Used by small businesses.

LO 2


Partnership

Partnership

A partnership is similar to a proprietorship except that it is owned by two or more individuals.

10% of business organizations in the U.S. (combined with limited liability companies) are partnerships.

Combines the skills and resources of more than one person.

LO 2


Corporation

Corporation

A corporation is organized under state or federal statutes as a separate legal taxable entity.

Corporations generate 90% of business revenues.

20% of the business organizations in the U.S. are corporations.

Ownership is divided into shares, called stock.

Issues stock.

Used by large firms.

LO 2


Limited liability company llc

Limited Liability Company (LLC)

A limited liability company (LLC) combines the attributes of a partnership and a corporation.

10% of business organizations in the U.S. (combined with partnerships).

Often used as an alternative to a partnership.

Has tax and legal liability advantages for owners.

LO 2


Introduction to accounting and business

LO 2

Accounting Concept

  • Under the cost concept, amounts are initially recorded in the accounting records at their cost or purchase price.


Accounting concepts

Accounting Concepts

The objectivity concept requires that the amounts recorded in the accounting records be based on objective evidence.

Only the final agreed-upon amount is objective enough to be recorded in the accounting records.

LO 2

  • The unit of measure concept requires that economic data be recorded in dollars.


Learning objective 3

Learning Objective 3

Describe the nature of a business, the role of accounting, and ethics in business.

Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.

State the accounting equation and define each element of the equation.


The accounting equation

The Accounting Equation

The resources owned by a business are its assets.

The rights of creditors are the debts of the business and are called liabilities.

The rights of the owners are called owner’s equity.

The equation Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity is called the accounting equation.

LO 3


The accounting equation1

The Accounting Equation

The rights of the owners

The rights of creditors are the debts of the business

The resources owned by a business

LO 3

Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s Equity


Learning objective 4

Learning Objective 4

Describe the nature of a business, the role of accounting, and ethics in business.

Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.

State the accounting equation and define each element of the equation.

Describe and illustrate how business transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the elements of the accounting equation.


Business transaction

Business Transaction

A business transaction is an economic event or condition that directly changes an entity’s financial condition or its results of operations.

LO 4


Transaction a

Transaction A

LO 4

On November 1, 2011, Chris Clark deposited $25,000 in a bank account in the name of NetSolutions.


Transaction b

Transaction B

LO 4

On November 5, 2011, NetSolutions paid $20,000 for the purchase of land as a future building site.


Transaction c

Transaction C

LO 4

On November 10, 2011, NetSolutions purchased supplies for $1,350 and agreed to pay the supplier in the near future.


Introduction to accounting and business

The liability created by a purchase on account is called an account payable.

Items such as supplies that will be used in the business in the future are called prepaid expenses, which are assets.

LO 4

Transaction C


Transaction d

Transaction D

LO 4

On November 18, 2011, NetSolutions received cash of $7,500 for providing services to customers. A business earns money by selling goods or services to its customers. This amount is called revenue.


Introduction to accounting and business

LO 4

Transaction D

  • Revenue from providing services is recorded as fees earned.

  • Revenue from the sale of merchandise is record as sales.

  • Other examples of revenue include rent, which is recorded as rent revenue, and interest, which is recorded as interestrevenue.

  • An account receivable is a claim against a customer, which is an asset.


Transaction e

Transaction E

LO 4

During the month, NetSolutions spent cash or used up other assets in earning revenue. Assets used in this process of earning revenue are called expenses.


Transaction e1

Transaction E

LO 4

On November 30, 2011, NetSolutions paid the following expenses: wages, $2,125; rent, $800; utilities, $450; and miscellaneous,$275.


Transaction f

Transaction F

LO 4

On November 30, 2011, NetSolutions paid creditors on account, $950.


Transaction g

Transaction G

LO 4

On November 30, 2011, Chris Clark determined that the cost of supplies on hand at the end of the period was $550.


Transaction h

Transaction H

LO 4

On November 30, 2011, Chris Clark withdrew $2,000 from NetSolutions for personal use.


Learning objective 5

Learning Objective 5

Describe the nature of a business, the role of accounting, and ethics in business.

Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.

State the accounting equation and define each element of the equation.

Describe and illustrate how business transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the elements of the accounting equation.

Describe the financial statements of a proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.


Financial statements

Financial Statements

LO 5

  • After transactions have been recorded and summarized, reports are prepared for users. The accounting reports providing this information are called financial statements.


Income statement

Income Statement

The income statement reports the revenues and expenses for a period of time, based on the matching concept.

The matching concept is applied by “matching” the expenses incurred during a period with the revenue that those expenses generated.

The excess of the revenue over the expenses is called net income, net profit, or earnings. If expenses exceed revenue, the excess is a net loss.

LO 5


Statement of owner s equity and the balance sheet

Statement of Owner’s Equity and the Balance Sheet

The statement of owner’s equity reports the changes in the owner’s equity for a period of time.

It is prepared after the income statement because the net income or net loss for the period must be reported in this statement.

LO 5

  • A balance sheet is a list of the assets, liabilities, and owner’s equity as of a specific date.


Statement of cash flows

Statement of Cash Flows

A statement of cash flows is a summary of the cash receipts and cash payments for a specific period of time.

It consists of three sections: (1) operating activities(2) investing activities(3) financing activities

LO 5


Cash flows

Cash Flows

The cash flows from operating activities section reports a summary of cash receipts and cash payments from operations.

LO 5

  • The cash flows from investing activities section reports the cash transactions for the acquisition and sale of relatively permanent assets.

  • The cash flows from financing activities section reports the cash transactions related to cash investments by the owner, borrowings, and withdrawals by the owner.


Learning objective 6

Learning Objective 6

  • Describe the nature of a business, the role of accounting, and ethics in business.

  • Summarize the development of accounting principles and relate them to practice.

  • State the accounting equation and define each element of the equation.

  • Describe and illustrate how business transactions can be recorded in terms of the resulting change in the elements of the accounting equation.

  • Describe the financial statements of a proprietorship and explain how they interrelate.

  • Describe and illustrate the use of the ratio of liabilities to owner’s equity in evaluating a company’s financial condition.


Ratio of liabilities to owner s equity

Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity

Total Liabilities

Total Owner’s Equity (or Total Stockholders’ Equity)

Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity

=

$400

$26,050

Ratio of Liabilities to Owner’s Equity

=

=0.015

LO 6


Introduction to accounting and business1

Introduction to Accounting and Business

The End


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