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2. What is hashing Simply, generating a numeric key using an algorithm (hash function)
Definition: A function that maps keys to integers, usually to get an even distribution on a smaller set of values.
The very simplest hash function is to use the modulus operator %
Input range % key range
3. Input and key range Example. We want to store 7 digit telephone numbers so that they can be quickly retrieved.
Number of expected entries = 100
Range of telephone numbers = 0 9999999
Simple hashing algorithm
hash = inputNumber % 100
Whats the effect?
4. Applications of hashing File management working out where to store records
Comparing complex values
Cryptography creating digital signatures eg: md5
5. Collisions Where the hash value returned for two keys is the same.
What to do?
The 2/3rds rule
6. DJB Hash function An algorithm produced by Professor Daniel J. Bernstein and shown first to the world on the usenet newsgroup comp.lang.c. It is one of the most efficient hash functions ever published.
hash = 5381
for i in range(len(key)):
hash = ((hash << 5) + hash) + ord(key[i])