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Geographic Information Science. Introduction. GIS answers the question: Where GIS helps to design and manage our resources and help improve our world. Our world faces challenges: natural disasters, poverty, environmental degradation and etc. Continue Introduction: Basic GIS Knowledge.

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introduction
Introduction
  • GIS answers the question: Where
  • GIS helps to design and manage our resources and help improve our world.
  • Our world faces challenges: natural disasters, poverty, environmental degradation and etc.
continue introduction basic gis knowledge
Continue Introduction: Basic GIS Knowledge
  • GIS can be defined as a system for entering, storing, manipulating, analyzing and displaying geographic or spatial data.
  • These data are represented by points, lines, and polygons along with their associated attributes.
  • Geographic data can be represented as 2 formats: 1) raster data that are stored in a grid or pixel format that is referenced to coordinate system (latitude, longitude) 2) vector or polygon data which uses a series of points (x, y) coordinates to define the boundary of the object of interest.
continue basis gis knowledge
Continue Basis GIS Knowledge
  • Map projection and coordinate system: registering spatial data to the ground requires transforming data, recorded in digitizer inches, to some ground-based coordinate system.
  • A map projection is an orderly, mathematical system of parallels and meridians that allows us to flatten the earth only at the cost of one or more spatial attributes.
  • Common coordinate system: UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), state plane coordinates, latitude-longitude.
  • Question: Why is this important?
history of gis
History of GIS
  • During 1950s, the quantitative geography was reinforced.
  • The introduction of statistical methods and computers, giving rise to analytical spatial analysis.
the image of map produced by symap
The image of map produced by SYMAP
  • In 1960s, a computer mapping program (SYMAP) was released.
pen plotter in 1960s
Pen Plotter in 1960s

Pen Plotter nowadays

  • Pen Plotter outputs actually resembling traditional maps, thereby initiating the era of computer –assisted cartography.
continue gis history
Continue GIS History
  • During 1970s, digital cartographic files of boundaries and entities included topological information that enables them to be “intelligent” and subject to query.
  • 1980s, the vast majority of GIS incorporate some generic RDBMS engine.
  • The software handles the geographic attribute data and allow access to analytical and computer mapping functions operating on digital cartographic files and the geographic database.
today s gis
Today’s GIS
  • Over 260 vendors offering services covering, digitizing, data conversion, consulting and specializing in a particular application domain, such as Trimble, IBM, HP, Microsoft, ESRI, NAVTEQ and etc.
  • How GIS helps to us to face the challenges, such as, natural disasters, poverty, environmental degradation?
examples of gis uses
Examples of GIS Uses:
  • Idaho Falls Campus map: http://vmx115.mapserve.net/website/kgohMap/viewer.htm
  • Before making this map, what are the errors that we need to take in considerations?
  • http://www.xfrogdownloads.com/greenwebNew/products/products.htm
  • What can these 3D visualization tools contribute to GIS world?
continue with examples
Continue with examples:
  • Cheetah Conservation Botswana a GSM collar from African Wildlife Tracking to track the cheetah (Nala)’s movement, a relatively recent development in satellite collars which works via the cellular network. The collar was programmed to send her location once every 12 hours.
  • With this tracking device and Google map, they were able to learn so much about Nala and her cubs with this new technology that wouldn\'t have been possible otherwise.
  • http://www.cheetahbotswana.com/tracking.php
greenbelt movement
GreenBelt Movement
  • The greenbelt movement was founded 1977 by professor Wangari Maathai who is the first environmentalist to receive the Nobel Peace prize.
  • GBM began as a grassroots tree planting program to address the challenges of deforestation, soil erosion, and lack of water in order to support agriculture, ranching, commercial plantations and development.
  • Through the use of GIS technology, GBM can monitor and manage the rehabilitation process andn demonstrate that with commitment and hard work, these ecosystems can be restored.
  • http://greenbeltmovement.org/
other examples
Other examples:
  • http://maps.yahoo.com/broadband#env=a
  • http://maps.google.com/
  • Google earth
  • http://www.maps.live.com/
  • http://giscenter-ims.isu.edu/Sisp/maps/viewer.htm
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