Geographic information science
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Geographic Information Science. Introduction. GIS answers the question: Where GIS helps to design and manage our resources and help improve our world. Our world faces challenges: natural disasters, poverty, environmental degradation and etc. Continue Introduction: Basic GIS Knowledge.

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Geographic Information Science

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Geographic information science

Geographic Information Science


Introduction

Introduction

  • GIS answers the question: Where

  • GIS helps to design and manage our resources and help improve our world.

  • Our world faces challenges: natural disasters, poverty, environmental degradation and etc.


Continue introduction basic gis knowledge

Continue Introduction: Basic GIS Knowledge

  • GIS can be defined as a system for entering, storing, manipulating, analyzing and displaying geographic or spatial data.

  • These data are represented by points, lines, and polygons along with their associated attributes.

  • Geographic data can be represented as 2 formats: 1) raster data that are stored in a grid or pixel format that is referenced to coordinate system (latitude, longitude) 2) vector or polygon data which uses a series of points (x, y) coordinates to define the boundary of the object of interest.


Continue basis gis knowledge

Continue Basis GIS Knowledge

  • Map projection and coordinate system: registering spatial data to the ground requires transforming data, recorded in digitizer inches, to some ground-based coordinate system.

  • A map projection is an orderly, mathematical system of parallels and meridians that allows us to flatten the earth only at the cost of one or more spatial attributes.

  • Common coordinate system: UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), state plane coordinates, latitude-longitude.

  • Question: Why is this important?


History of gis

History of GIS

  • During 1950s, the quantitative geography was reinforced.

  • The introduction of statistical methods and computers, giving rise to analytical spatial analysis.


The image of map produced by symap

The image of map produced by SYMAP

  • In 1960s, a computer mapping program (SYMAP) was released.


Pen plotter in 1960s

Pen Plotter in 1960s

Pen Plotter nowadays

  • Pen Plotter outputs actually resembling traditional maps, thereby initiating the era of computer –assisted cartography.


Continue gis history

Continue GIS History

  • During 1970s, digital cartographic files of boundaries and entities included topological information that enables them to be “intelligent” and subject to query.

  • 1980s, the vast majority of GIS incorporate some generic RDBMS engine.

  • The software handles the geographic attribute data and allow access to analytical and computer mapping functions operating on digital cartographic files and the geographic database.


Today s gis

Today’s GIS

  • Over 260 vendors offering services covering, digitizing, data conversion, consulting and specializing in a particular application domain, such as Trimble, IBM, HP, Microsoft, ESRI, NAVTEQ and etc.

  • How GIS helps to us to face the challenges, such as, natural disasters, poverty, environmental degradation?


Examples of gis uses

Examples of GIS Uses:

  • Idaho Falls Campus map: http://vmx115.mapserve.net/website/kgohMap/viewer.htm

  • Before making this map, what are the errors that we need to take in considerations?

  • http://www.xfrogdownloads.com/greenwebNew/products/products.htm

  • What can these 3D visualization tools contribute to GIS world?


Continue with examples

Continue with examples:

  • Cheetah Conservation Botswana a GSM collar from African Wildlife Tracking to track the cheetah (Nala)’s movement, a relatively recent development in satellite collars which works via the cellular network. The collar was programmed to send her location once every 12 hours.

  • With this tracking device and Google map, they were able to learn so much about Nala and her cubs with this new technology that wouldn't have been possible otherwise.

  • http://www.cheetahbotswana.com/tracking.php


Greenbelt movement

GreenBelt Movement

  • The greenbelt movement was founded 1977 by professor Wangari Maathai who is the first environmentalist to receive the Nobel Peace prize.

  • GBM began as a grassroots tree planting program to address the challenges of deforestation, soil erosion, and lack of water in order to support agriculture, ranching, commercial plantations and development.

  • Through the use of GIS technology, GBM can monitor and manage the rehabilitation process andn demonstrate that with commitment and hard work, these ecosystems can be restored.

  • http://greenbeltmovement.org/


Other examples

Other examples:

  • http://maps.yahoo.com/broadband#env=a

  • http://maps.google.com/

  • Google earth

  • http://www.maps.live.com/

  • http://giscenter-ims.isu.edu/Sisp/maps/viewer.htm


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