Geographic information science
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Geographic Information Science. Introduction. GIS answers the question: Where GIS helps to design and manage our resources and help improve our world. Our world faces challenges: natural disasters, poverty, environmental degradation and etc. Continue Introduction: Basic GIS Knowledge.

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Geographic Information Science

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Geographic information science

Geographic Information Science



  • GIS answers the question: Where

  • GIS helps to design and manage our resources and help improve our world.

  • Our world faces challenges: natural disasters, poverty, environmental degradation and etc.

Continue introduction basic gis knowledge

Continue Introduction: Basic GIS Knowledge

  • GIS can be defined as a system for entering, storing, manipulating, analyzing and displaying geographic or spatial data.

  • These data are represented by points, lines, and polygons along with their associated attributes.

  • Geographic data can be represented as 2 formats: 1) raster data that are stored in a grid or pixel format that is referenced to coordinate system (latitude, longitude) 2) vector or polygon data which uses a series of points (x, y) coordinates to define the boundary of the object of interest.

Continue basis gis knowledge

Continue Basis GIS Knowledge

  • Map projection and coordinate system: registering spatial data to the ground requires transforming data, recorded in digitizer inches, to some ground-based coordinate system.

  • A map projection is an orderly, mathematical system of parallels and meridians that allows us to flatten the earth only at the cost of one or more spatial attributes.

  • Common coordinate system: UTM (Universal Transverse Mercator), state plane coordinates, latitude-longitude.

  • Question: Why is this important?

History of gis

History of GIS

  • During 1950s, the quantitative geography was reinforced.

  • The introduction of statistical methods and computers, giving rise to analytical spatial analysis.

The image of map produced by symap

The image of map produced by SYMAP

  • In 1960s, a computer mapping program (SYMAP) was released.

Pen plotter in 1960s

Pen Plotter in 1960s

Pen Plotter nowadays

  • Pen Plotter outputs actually resembling traditional maps, thereby initiating the era of computer –assisted cartography.

Continue gis history

Continue GIS History

  • During 1970s, digital cartographic files of boundaries and entities included topological information that enables them to be “intelligent” and subject to query.

  • 1980s, the vast majority of GIS incorporate some generic RDBMS engine.

  • The software handles the geographic attribute data and allow access to analytical and computer mapping functions operating on digital cartographic files and the geographic database.

Today s gis

Today’s GIS

  • Over 260 vendors offering services covering, digitizing, data conversion, consulting and specializing in a particular application domain, such as Trimble, IBM, HP, Microsoft, ESRI, NAVTEQ and etc.

  • How GIS helps to us to face the challenges, such as, natural disasters, poverty, environmental degradation?

Examples of gis uses

Examples of GIS Uses:

  • Idaho Falls Campus map:

  • Before making this map, what are the errors that we need to take in considerations?


  • What can these 3D visualization tools contribute to GIS world?

Continue with examples

Continue with examples:

  • Cheetah Conservation Botswana a GSM collar from African Wildlife Tracking to track the cheetah (Nala)’s movement, a relatively recent development in satellite collars which works via the cellular network. The collar was programmed to send her location once every 12 hours.

  • With this tracking device and Google map, they were able to learn so much about Nala and her cubs with this new technology that wouldn't have been possible otherwise.


Greenbelt movement

GreenBelt Movement

  • The greenbelt movement was founded 1977 by professor Wangari Maathai who is the first environmentalist to receive the Nobel Peace prize.

  • GBM began as a grassroots tree planting program to address the challenges of deforestation, soil erosion, and lack of water in order to support agriculture, ranching, commercial plantations and development.

  • Through the use of GIS technology, GBM can monitor and manage the rehabilitation process andn demonstrate that with commitment and hard work, these ecosystems can be restored.


Other examples

Other examples:



  • Google earth



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