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Ration Formulation. 2/05/2001 ANS 336. 1.Steps in Balancing a Ration. Nutrient requirements generally represent the minimum quantity of the nutrients that should be incorporated. Factors to be considered Age Sex Body Size Type of production Intensity of production.

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Ration Formulation

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Ration Formulation

2/05/2001

ANS 336


1.Steps in Balancing a Ration

  • Nutrient requirements generally represent the minimum quantity of the nutrients that should be incorporated.

  • Factors to be considered

    • Age

    • Sex

    • Body Size

    • Type of production

    • Intensity of production


Ruminants: Determine what feeds are available and list their respective nutrient compositions

Dry matter

Protein

Energy

Phosphorus

Calcium

Vitamin A

Vitamin D if confined

Non ruminants same as Ruminant, but:

Dry matter

Protein

Essential AA

Energy

Essential Fatty acids

Phosphorus

Calcium

Vitamin A,D, E and B complex

Minerals

2.Steps in Balancing a Ration


3.Steps in Balancing a Ration

  • Feed cost

  • Processing Cost

  • Transportation Cost

  • Storage Cost

  • Antioxidant

  • Refrigeration Cost

  • Nutritive value loss with storage


4.Steps in Balancing a Ration

  • Balance a ration that is useable.

    • Can they eat that much, can they utilize that source of the ingredient.

  • Limitation of feed ingredients

    • Consumption levels

    • Limiting values such as: amount of forage that can be consumed.

    • Wheat as percentage of diet

    • Cottonseed limitations


5.Steps in Balancing a Ration

  • Convert to Dry Matter Basis:

    1. Conversion of feed nutrients from an as fed to a dry matter basis:

    • a.     Assume alfalfa silage analyzed 7 % crude protein on an as-fed basis and contained 40% dry matter. What percent crude protein would the alfalfa contain when expressed on a dry matter basis? The solution for this example can be obtained by the following equation:

    • % Nutrient ( As fed basis) = % Nutrient (dry matter basis)

      % Feed Dry Matter100 % dry matter


Methods of Formulation

  • Square Method (Pearson Square)

  • Trial and Error

  • Simultaneous Equation Method

  • 2 X 2 Matrix method

  • Computer Method

  • WAG Method – not recommended


Feeds Available


Holstein Cow TDN and CP Req.1433 lb BW, 65 lbs of milk, 4% Butter fat

Needs


Determining Consumption

  • Cow will eat about 2 % of her body weight in forage

    • 2 % X 1433 = 28.66 lbs

    • 1.2 – 2 % of her body weight in Concentrate [ ].

    • Hay is 14#

    • Corn Silage is 14 #

      • 40 X 35% (DM) = 14 #


From Forage


Supplied


Trial and Error Conc. Mix.


Needs from Concentrate Mix

  • Divide TDN from concentrate (16.5) by the % TDN in the mixture (75.3).

    • 16.5/0.753 = 21.9 lbs of TDN to meet energy req.

  • Multiply 21.9 times 10.3% CP in mix

    • 21.9 X .103 = 2.26

    • 3.69 (needed) – 2.26 = 1.43 still needed

  • Substitute 175 # of SBOM to concentrate mix. In place of that amount of corn .


Trial and Error Conc. Mix.


Trial and error - Guess

  • 16.5 lbs / .746 = 22.1 of conc to supply 16.5 lbs of TDN

  • 3.69 lbs protein needed/ .163 of protein = 22.63 = 22.63.

  • Therefore, we feed 22.63 lbs of concentrate to meet all requirements with a little extra energy.


Supplied


Holstein Cows consumption

  • Cows will eat approximately 3.0 to 4.0 % of the body weight in dry matter depending on the stage of lactation.

  • 2 % from Forage and the remainder from Concentrate mixes.

  • Next we need to figure the NDF amount to see what level of forage she can consume. Consume.

  • 1.2 % BW in NDF with 0.9 % from Forages and 0.3 % from Concentrates.


NDF requirements

  • 1.2 % X 1433 = 17.2 lbs NDF

  • 0.9 % BW from forage = 12.9

    • 12.6 X 55.0 = 6.93

    • 14.0 X 59.0 = 8.26

15.19


Pearson’ Square

  • Simple nutrient needs are met with simple feed formulas.

  • Lesser values are subtracted from greater values.

  • Recorded diagonally.

  • One feed must have a value higher than the desired value and one must have a value lower than the desired value.


Pearson Square

A

=

C

X

B

D

=

Total

A – X D

B – X C

Need Percentage


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