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Ration Formulation. 2/05/2001 ANS 336. 1.Steps in Balancing a Ration. Nutrient requirements generally represent the minimum quantity of the nutrients that should be incorporated. Factors to be considered Age Sex Body Size Type of production Intensity of production.

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Ration formulation

Ration Formulation

2/05/2001

ANS 336


1 steps in balancing a ration
1.Steps in Balancing a Ration

  • Nutrient requirements generally represent the minimum quantity of the nutrients that should be incorporated.

  • Factors to be considered

    • Age

    • Sex

    • Body Size

    • Type of production

    • Intensity of production


2 steps in balancing a ration

Ruminants: Determine what feeds are available and list their respective nutrient compositions

Dry matter

Protein

Energy

Phosphorus

Calcium

Vitamin A

Vitamin D if confined

Non ruminants same as Ruminant, but:

Dry matter

Protein

Essential AA

Energy

Essential Fatty acids

Phosphorus

Calcium

Vitamin A,D, E and B complex

Minerals

2.Steps in Balancing a Ration


3 steps in balancing a ration
3.Steps in Balancing a Ration respective nutrient compositions

  • Feed cost

  • Processing Cost

  • Transportation Cost

  • Storage Cost

  • Antioxidant

  • Refrigeration Cost

  • Nutritive value loss with storage


4 steps in balancing a ration
4.Steps in Balancing a Ration respective nutrient compositions

  • Balance a ration that is useable.

    • Can they eat that much, can they utilize that source of the ingredient.

  • Limitation of feed ingredients

    • Consumption levels

    • Limiting values such as: amount of forage that can be consumed.

    • Wheat as percentage of diet

    • Cottonseed limitations


5 steps in balancing a ration
5.Steps in Balancing a Ration respective nutrient compositions

  • Convert to Dry Matter Basis:

    1. Conversion of feed nutrients from an as fed to a dry matter basis:

    • a.     Assume alfalfa silage analyzed 7 % crude protein on an as-fed basis and contained 40% dry matter. What percent crude protein would the alfalfa contain when expressed on a dry matter basis? The solution for this example can be obtained by the following equation:

    • % Nutrient ( As fed basis) = % Nutrient (dry matter basis)

      % Feed Dry Matter 100 % dry matter


Methods of formulation
Methods of Formulation respective nutrient compositions

  • Square Method (Pearson Square)

  • Trial and Error

  • Simultaneous Equation Method

  • 2 X 2 Matrix method

  • Computer Method

  • WAG Method – not recommended


Feeds available
Feeds Available respective nutrient compositions


Holstein cow tdn and cp req 1433 lb bw 65 lbs of milk 4 butter fat
Holstein Cow TDN and CP Req. respective nutrient compositions 1433 lb BW, 65 lbs of milk, 4% Butter fat

Needs


Determining consumption
Determining Consumption respective nutrient compositions

  • Cow will eat about 2 % of her body weight in forage

    • 2 % X 1433 = 28.66 lbs

    • 1.2 – 2 % of her body weight in Concentrate [ ].

    • Hay is 14#

    • Corn Silage is 14 #

      • 40 X 35% (DM) = 14 #


From forage
From Forage respective nutrient compositions


Supplied
Supplied respective nutrient compositions


Trial and error conc mix
Trial and Error Conc. Mix. respective nutrient compositions


Needs from concentrate mix
Needs from Concentrate Mix respective nutrient compositions

  • Divide TDN from concentrate (16.5) by the % TDN in the mixture (75.3).

    • 16.5/0.753 = 21.9 lbs of TDN to meet energy req.

  • Multiply 21.9 times 10.3% CP in mix

    • 21.9 X .103 = 2.26

    • 3.69 (needed) – 2.26 = 1.43 still needed

  • Substitute 175 # of SBOM to concentrate mix. In place of that amount of corn .


Trial and Error Conc. Mix respective nutrient compositions .


Trial and error guess
Trial and error - Guess respective nutrient compositions

  • 16.5 lbs / .746 = 22.1 of conc to supply 16.5 lbs of TDN

  • 3.69 lbs protein needed/ .163 of protein = 22.63 = 22.63.

  • Therefore, we feed 22.63 lbs of concentrate to meet all requirements with a little extra energy.


Supplied1
Supplied respective nutrient compositions


Holstein cows consumption
Holstein Cows consumption respective nutrient compositions

  • Cows will eat approximately 3.0 to 4.0 % of the body weight in dry matter depending on the stage of lactation.

  • 2 % from Forage and the remainder from Concentrate mixes.

  • Next we need to figure the NDF amount to see what level of forage she can consume. Consume.

  • 1.2 % BW in NDF with 0.9 % from Forages and 0.3 % from Concentrates.


Ndf requirements
NDF requirements respective nutrient compositions

  • 1.2 % X 1433 = 17.2 lbs NDF

  • 0.9 % BW from forage = 12.9

    • 12.6 X 55.0 = 6.93

    • 14.0 X 59.0 = 8.26

15.19


Pearson square
Pearson’ Square respective nutrient compositions

  • Simple nutrient needs are met with simple feed formulas.

  • Lesser values are subtracted from greater values.

  • Recorded diagonally.

  • One feed must have a value higher than the desired value and one must have a value lower than the desired value.


Pearson Square respective nutrient compositions

A

=

C

X

B

D

=

Total

A – X D

B – X C

Need Percentage


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