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INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES. Rahul Praveen Subbiahswamy. Discussion paper. R8 An Enterprise Integration Methodology Wing Lam and Venky Shankararaman IEEE Computer Society (1994). INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies. Introduction.

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Information systems development methodologies l.jpg

INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT METHODOLOGIES

Rahul Praveen Subbiahswamy


Discussion paper l.jpg

Discussion paper

R8

An Enterprise Integration Methodology

Wing Lam and Venky Shankararaman

IEEE Computer Society (1994)

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Introduction

  • As more and more organization started pursuing the benefits of E-Business, they are looking to a process called Enterprise Integration (EI)

  • More complex EI scenario involves Enterprise application integration

  • Emerging EI scenario is B2B integration

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Enterprise Integration Management (EIM)

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Understand End-To-End Business Process

  • Critical to organization’s goals

  • Tells us what processes the organization needs to integrate and why

  • In collaborative business models, we must include business process that takes place between organizations and business partners.

  • Achieving a thorough understanding of these processes means

  • Talking to business stakeholders

  • Identifying the distinct business processes that different users perform

  • Modeling the business processes pertaining to individual business scenario’s

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Business relationship and process

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Map the process onto components

  • Mapping the processes onto various integration components

  • It includes legacy systems that typically form bedrock of an organization IT architecture

  • Without mapping from the business process, we might produce integration solution that doesn’t align well with how the business works.

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Mapping a process onto integration Components

Receive a tender via the trading hub

Check the availability of goods

Check the Customer’s history

Check possible delivery dates

Calculate a price

Return a quote to the trading hub

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Derive the requirements

  • Mapping from the previous step have identified three main types of integration component:

  • Legacy systems that we need to integrate

  • Manual processes for which automation will involve developing new IT systems

  • Manual processes for which automation will involve extending legacy systems

  • Without a clear and complete set of integration requirements, the integration architecture we choose will prove either inappropriate or inadequate

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Common types of integration requirements

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development methodologies


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Produce the architecture

  • Based on integration requirements, a solution architect can now produce an integration architecture that describes an integrated solution’s overall technical design.

  • Traditional point-to-point architecture aren't scalable.

  • E-business requires more scalable integration architecture, which use integration intermediaries for information transformation and exchange, and they rely on commonly accepted or standardized data and exchange formats (XML-based technologies)

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development methodologies


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Qualities of an integration architecture

  • Openness

  • Flexibility

  • Reliability

  • Security

  • Feasibility

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development methodologies


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Plan the Integration

  • Formulate a detailed plan of action to implement the architecture.

  • EI projects typically involves planning in the following areas

  • Project Scoping

  • Project resourcing

  • Integration architecture design and implementation

  • Testing

  • Deployment and rollout

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development methodologies


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Discussion paper

R37

A System Development Methodology For ERP Systems

Niv Ahtituv, Seev Neumann and Moshe Zviran

The Journal of Computer Information Systems (2002)

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development methodologies


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Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

  • ERP system is an integrative information system that supports the work process and resource management of an organization.

  • ERP implementation project is large and complex and combines an implementation of new IS together with redesign of work progress.

  • It is highly risky in nature due to

  • Complexity

  • Large Size

  • High costs

  • Large development team

  • Tight time schedule

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development methodologies


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ERP in Israel manufacturing organization

  • A study that examined 310 manufacturing organizations found that different manufacturing organization gain different benefits from similar IS applications related to ERP, as a function of organizational characteristics.

  • Most implementation included additions and enhancement to the system in order to support the functions and tasks that were unique to specific organization.

  • Structured and well defined methodology for implementing an ERP system can reduce degree of risk and improve the probability of project success.

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development methodologies


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Three main methodologies

  • Conventional IS development approach

  • Prototyping approach

  • Application software package approach

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development methodologies


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Conventional IS development approach

(preliminary analysis, feasibility study,

information analysis, system design)

(programming, procedure development)

(conversion)

(operation and

maintenance,

termination)

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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System life cycle based on a prototype

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Application software package model

  • Purchasing an application package reduces the time delay and the amount of system development work that is needed

  • Reduces most of the work of building and maintaining the IS.

  • Major advantages of application software package implementation are lower costs and faster implementation

  • Need for such modifications can reduce these advantages.

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Characteristics affecting the ERP Life Cycle

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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ERP Development Model

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Selection phase

  • The phase is comprised of eight activities:

  • Definition of project objectives

  • Collection of information about system and vendors

  • Collection of information about consulting firms

  • Need analysis

  • Investigation of vendor alternatives

  • Investigation of consultant alternatives

  • Collection of information on technological infrastructure

  • Feasibility study

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Definition Phase

  • The phase is comprised of four activities:

  • Definition of project scope

  • Establishing implementation teams and timetables

  • Training of the implementation teams

  • Initial implementation of the system

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Implementation Phase

  • The implementation phase comprises nine steps

  • Gap analysis

  • Business Process Reengineering

  • Identification of complementary solutions

  • Construction of prototype

  • Data conversion

  • Definition of work procedures

  • Full implementation of the system

  • Training of the Users

  • Acceptance test

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Operation phase

  • It is the longest phase of the ERP life cycle and can last for several years. It consists of five steps

  • Establishment of support centres

  • Performance of changes and enhancements

  • Upgrading the system

  • System audit

  • System termination

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Comparing ERP model to other development model

ERP Lifecycle

model

Application Package

model

Prototyping

SDLC

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Discussion paper

R27

A methodology for the User- Sensitive Implementation of Information Systems in the pharmaceutical Industry

E C Goodman

International Journal of Information Management(1998)

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Importance of User- Sensitive Implementation

  • New IS is usually introduced to improve the efficiency or effectiveness by which end user make use of information resources in pursuit of their objectives

  • If organization wants end users to make effective use of the system

  • Demonstrate clear benefits

  • Fitting wider spectrum of information resources available to them

  • Skills and support needed to exploit the system

  • New system will affect the way in which end user manage their information of day-to-day activities

  • Adjusting their activities to integrate this change into working practices

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Timing of methodology in context of overall project cycle

Library Management system project

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Performance Support Methodology

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Define the change event

  • In defining the change event, we consider the following

  • What is the purpose of the system; what will the customers use for it?

  • Is it replacing a previous way of doing things, providing something new, or merely providing an alternative?

  • What functionality will it provide to the customer that they do not have?

  • Will its introduction result in the removal of something which customers previously had?

  • What about impact and benefit?

  • How will it relate to other information resources available to the customer?

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Example from Medline project

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Identifying the target audience(s)

  • It helps in understands who will be using the new application and how subgroups might be affected differently by it.

  • We can define appropriate communication and training objectives by understanding

  • Nature of customers

  • use that they will put the system to

  • Related skills

  • Number of people involved

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Example from Medline project

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Carrying out SWOT analysis

  • SWOT analysis is carried out to publicize the strength, weakness, and potential improvements for the new system.

  • The data for SWOT analysis can come from a project team brainstorm or from customer input

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Define the communication & training objectives

  • Ensures end user is ready and able to make the most effective use of the new system

  • Smithkline used following headings to group communication and training objectives

  • Awareness

  • Scope

  • How to

  • Help and Support

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Communication approaches

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Communication approaches-contd

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Training approaches


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Training approaches-contd


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Choosing and scheduling the communication and training approaches


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Choosing and scheduling the communication and training approaches-contd


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Determining the evaluation

  • Ensures original communication and training objectives have actually been met and enable us to assess how successful the overall implementation of system has been.

  • Evaluation approaches typically include

  • An automatic log of the number of times a system is being used

  • Monitoring of queries received by the help desk and IM support staff

  • Training evaluation

  • Informal feedback from customers

  • Formal feedback from customers

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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IBM Jams: Collaboration Innovation Evolution, 2001-2006

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies

(Source: IBM Value 2.0)


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Summary

  • A detailed methodology was illustrated with examples based on experience, for addressing user sensitive issues of communication, training and support at an early stage in the implementation of information system

  • Systematic encorporation of a socio-technical approach into more traditional IT project management can enhance the adoption and effectiveness of new information system

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Finally

“It is clear then that the idea of a fixed method rests to naïve a view of man and his social surroundings. To those who look at the rich material provided by history, it will become clear that there is only one principle that can be defended under all circumstances and in all stages of human development. It is the principle: anything goes.”

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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"By understanding weak signals and early indicators of industry transformation, we help our clients to be ahead of the pack."

— Peter Korsten, Vice-President and Global Leader,

IBM Institute for Business Value

INFS8005: Information Systems and Development Methodologies


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Thank you


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