Jfk and the cold war
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JFK and the Cold War. 1960 Election. Democratic nominee John Fitzgerald Kennedy = Senator from Mass. Republican nominee Richard Nixon = Vice President under Ike Two factors that helped JFK win – t.v. and civil rights. Kennedy the Candidate. Well-organized campaign

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JFK and the Cold War

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Jfk and the cold war

JFK and the Cold War


1960 election

1960 Election

  • Democratic nominee

    • John Fitzgerald Kennedy = Senator from Mass.

  • Republican nominee

    • Richard Nixon = Vice President under Ike

  • Two factors that helped JFK win – t.v. and civil rights


Kennedy the candidate

Kennedy the Candidate

  • Well-organized campaign

  • $ backed by large, wealthy family

  • Obstacles:

    • Age: only 43

    • Religion: Roman Catholic


Televised debate

Televised Debate

  • 1st televised debate ever between presidential candidates

  • Nixon: expert on foreign policy

    • Wanted to use the debate to expose JFK’s weakness.

  • JFK – cool and calm

  • “Image replaced the printed word.”


Election outcome

Election Outcome

  • The Presidential election of 1960 was the closest in American history. John F. Kennedy won the popular vote by a slim margin of approximately 100,000 votes. Richard Nixon won more individual states than Kennedy, but it was Kennedy who prevailed by winning key states with many electoral votes.


Kennedy and the king

Kennedy and the King

  • MLK and 33 demonstrators arrested in Atlanta at a segregated lunch counter

    • No concern from Ike

  • JFK showed concern

  • Bobby K. convinced the judge to have MLK released on bail


Camelot

Camelot

  • JFK, wife Jackie, son John Jr., daughter Caroline

    • Represented a Camelot mystique


The best and the brightest

The Best and the Brightest

  • McGeorge Bundy (Dean of Harvard): Nat. Sec. Advisor

  • Robert McNamara (President of Ford): Sec. of Defense

  • Dean Rusk(President of the Rockefeller Foundation): Sec. of State

  • Bobby Kennedy: Attorney General


Jfk takes command

JFK Takes Command

  • Warned against supporting the French in Indochina

  • JFK’s policy of Flexible Response

    • Build-up of the nation’s conventional forces (non-nuclear forces)

  • Created an elite branch of the Army

    • The Special Forces or The Green Berets


The berlin crisis

The Berlin Crisis

Citizens from E. Berlin flocked into W. Berlin

- Better economy

N.K. constructed the Berlin Wall to separate the two (Aug. 1961)

- Sign of Communist oppression


Crisis over cuba

Crisis Over Cuba

  • Fidel Castro: self declared Communist who welcomed Soviet aid

  • Took control of 3 oil refineries operated by the U.S. and British

  • Took control of U.S. sugar plantations


Bay of pigs

Bay of Pigs

  • Ike gave permission to the CIA to train Cuban exiles for a Cuban invasion

  • JFK – doubts but approved it

  • April 17, 1961 1400 Cuban exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs


Bay of pigs1

Bay of Pigs

  • A huge failure

  • No airstrike prior to the invasion

  • No help from a diversionary unit

  • 20,000 v. 1,400

  • Huge embarrassment for the U.S.


Cuban missile crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis

  • N.K. promised to defend Cuba w/Soviet Arms

  • Summer of ’62 – increased #’s of Soviet weapons (including nukes)

  • Oct. 4 – U.S. spy planes capture the activity

  • Soviet Union said it was not a 1st strike strategy


Cuban missile crisis1

Cuban Missile Crisis

  • JFK quarantined any ships heading to Cuba

  • N.K. promised to remove the missiles in exchange for a promise of no invasion by the U.S.


Easing tensions

Easing Tensions

  • Hot line: Direct phone line that linked the White House and the Kremlin.

  • Limited Test Ban Treaty: barred nuclear testing in the atmosphere.


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