Learning Styles. Nanda Mitra-Itle Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Discussion Points. Think-Pair-Share Brief learning styles inventory What’s hot in education Agree or Disagree What are learning styles Learning styles assessments Levels of research Valid or not valid Debate
Indiana University of Pennsylvania
Act first, think/reflect later
Feel deprived when cutoff from interaction with the outside world
Usually open to and motivated by outside world of people and things
Enjoy wide variety and change in people relationships
Think/reflect first, then Act
Regularly require an amount of "private time" to recharge batteries
Motivated internally, mind is sometimes so active it is "closed" to outside world
Prefer one-to-one communication and relationships
Mentally live in the Now, attending to present opportunities
Using common sense and creating practical solutions is automatic-instinctual
Memory recall is rich in detail of facts and past events
Best improvise from past experience
Like clear and concrete information; dislike guessing when facts are "fuzzy"
Mentally live in the Future, attending to future possibilities
Using imagination and creating/inventing new possibilities is automatic-instinctual
Memory recall emphasizes patterns, contexts, and connections
Best improvise from theoretical understanding
Comfortable with ambiguous, fuzzy data and with guessing its meaning
Instinctively search for facts and logic in a decision situation.
Naturally notices tasks and work to be accomplished.
Easily able to provide an objective and critical analysis.
Accept conflict as a natural, normal part of relationships with people
Instinctively employ personal feelings and impact on people in decision situations
Naturally sensitive to people needs and reactions.
Naturally seek consensus and popular opinions.
Unsettled by conflict; have almost a toxic reaction to disharmony.
Plan many of the details in advance before moving into action.
Focus on task-related action; complete meaningful segments before moving on.
Work best and avoid stress when keep ahead of deadlines.
Naturally use targets, dates and standard routines to manage life.
Comfortable moving into action without a plan; plan on-the-go.
Like to multitask, have variety, mix work and play.
Naturally tolerant of time pressure; work best close to the deadlines.
Instinctively avoid commitments which interfere with flexibility, freedom and variety
Write your 4 Letter Personality Code
What’s hot in education now?
Agree or Disagree:
Agree or Disagree:
What are Learning Styles?
How defined cont…:
(Sternberg; as cited by Ellis, 2001)
Learning styles assessments?
Kolb’s learning styles
Ellis’s Levels of Research?
Level II Problems cont….:
Ellis mentions the lack of level III research evaluating learning styles. Is anyone aware of any studies published since? I assume there isn’t much more research to report, as Ellis dropped the topic from the new edition…thoughts? (Sandra)
To be or not to be valid, that is the question?
Modalities change over time as demonstrated in duplications of classic studies(Burns, Johnson & Gable, 1998).
Low and High Low SES achievers differed only on motivation and persistence factors(Caldwell & Ginther, 1996)
Dunn & Price study of 1980 gifted students-tactile and kinesthetic(Burns, Johnson & Gable, 1998).
Learning styles information valuable in designing instruction (Felder et al, 2005)
A study examining learning style and preference for online learning support found no significant relationship b/w learning style and achievement on in-class examinations (Johnson et al, 2006).
Learning style theories have devised more than 70 constructs and ways of identifying and implementing them (Mortimore, 2005).
Definition of intelligence is being reexamined. (Ellis, 2001).
All students in their study performed better on standardized tests when using their learning styles and continued trend in next 2 to 3 years(Burke & Dunn, 2003).
A study found differences in styles between Mexican Americans and European Americans(Alder, 2000)
A study found that students who were taught using a Multisensory Instructional Pkg based on their learning styles performed better than a control group (Farkas, 2003).
Many differences attributed to learning/cog styles also attributed to gender diff (Frisby, 1993)
Psychometric intelligence better predictor of reading/math ach (Frisby, 1993)
Debate over whether self-report methodology valid? (Frisby, 1993)
A study examining learning style and preference for online learning support also found active and visual learners appeared disadvantaged under online study gps (Johnson et al, 2006).
Active & visual scored lower on in class examinations following on-line study gp (Johnson et al, 2006)
Construct validity and reliability of learning styles instruments questionable (Frisby, 1993)
Matching approach may stunt growth (Frisby, 1993)
Modality model has not yielded the promised results (Kavale & Forness, 1987)
Learning styles inventories are the first instances of testing where a failure to solve a problem puts one in a different category.
Style preference does not necessarily translate into higher achievement
Research has shown that field independent or analytic style correlate with measures of spatial and verbal ability.
Sternberg-School children who were viewed as stupid often suffer from merely a mismatch b/w their style and teacher.
So what do I do now?
No Learning Styles
Is this good teaching anyway?
If research does not support learning styles then why differentiate instruction in these ways?
instructional methods on middle school students. Journal of Educational Research, 9, 42051.
cultural learning styles.School Psychology Review, 22(3), 535-557.