Reading writing relations
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READING – WRITING RELATIONS. Are there any?. Agenda. The Rationale Literature Review The Purpose of the Study The Study The Research Questions The Results of the Study. The rationale.

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READING – WRITING RELATIONS

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Reading writing relations

READING – WRITING RELATIONS

Are there any?


Agenda

Agenda

  • The Rationale

  • Literature Review

  • The Purpose of the Study

  • The Study

  • The Research Questions

  • The Results of the Study


The rationale

The rationale

  • Students’ inability to transfer organization and content information from reading courses to writing courses


Aspects of l2 reading

ASPECTS OF L2 READING

Basic comprehension requires:

  • Rapid and accurate word recognition,

  • Fluency in processing words, sentences, and discourse cues,

  • A reasonably strong grasp of the structures of the language,

  • An ability to integrate meanings from the text,

  • An ability to make necessary inferences and connections to background knowledge.

    (Grabe, 1999; Pressley, 1998; Snow, Burns, and Griffin 1998)


L2 reading

L2 READING

  • Reading to learn,

  • Critical reading,

  • Reading to synthesize information,

  • Having processing resources to reflect critically on what they read,

  • Integrating information from texts with their background knowledge and use this information for later literacy tasks, such as writing.


Aspects of l2 writing

ASPECTS OF L2 WRITING

Writing requires:

  • Extensive practice,

  • Supporting social contexts,

  • Opportunities to reflect and receive appropriate feedback,

  • Assistance with tasks across a range of genres,


L2 writing

L2 WRITING

  • Motivational support and positive experiences,

  • Opportunities to interact over the writing produced,

  • Abilities to adapt and adjust purposes forwriting.

  • Background knowledge (Grabe & Kaplan, 1996, 1997; Hayes, 1996)


L2 writing1

L2 WRITING

Writers need to balance:

  • Planning for writing,

  • Using language resources,

  • Using background knowledge,

  • Solving rhetorical problems,

  • Reading to review text to that point,

  • Balancing processes strategically,

  • Monitoring outcomes,

  • Revising plans and text appropriately.


Reading writing relations1

READING – WRITING RELATIONS

Traditionally: reading and writing regarded as two separate skills:

  • Reading regarded as a decoding process,

  • Writing regarded as only a task of constructing grammatically correct essays


Reading writing relations2

READING – WRITING RELATIONS

Recently: reading and writing should be taught together, and reading and writing activities should go hand-in-hand and supplement each other (Tierney and Pearson, 1983), as they are

  • similar cognitive processes of meaning construction,

  • reading supports and shapes L2 learners’ writing through acquisition of language input when performing writing tasks

  • Through reading, opportunities to acquire knowledge of vocabulary, grammatical structures, rhetorical features of texts.


Reading writing relations3

READING – WRITING RELATIONS

Our aim: to help our students

  • become reflective readers and writers,

  • realize that both reading and writing are acts with communicative purposes and are inseparable.


Reading writing relations4

READING – WRITING RELATIONS

Reading, which builds the knowledge base of written texts, helps L2 learners acquire necessary language constructs, such as

- grammatical structures,

-discourse rules for writing,

and facilitates the process of acquisition

(Krashen,1984).


Reading writing relations5

READING – WRITING RELATIONS

  • It is reading that gives the writer the “feel” for the look and texture of reader-based prose (Krashen, 1984).

  • Reading can be, and in academic settings nearly always is, the basis for writing (Carson & Leki, 1993).


Reading writing relations6

READING – WRITING RELATIONS

  • Reading becomes the basis of writing because the information acquired through reading contains print-encoded messages as well as clues about how the messages’ grammatical, lexical, semantic, pragmatic, and rhetorical constitutes combine to make the message meaningful (Ferris & Hedgcock).

  • Reading supports writing through “meaningful input” (Hirvela, 2004).


L2 reading l2 writing

L2 READING – L2 WRITING

  • Rapid and accurate word recognition,

  • Ability of processing words, sentences, and discourse cues,

  • A reasonably strong grasp of the structures of the language,

  • Ability to integrate meanings from the text,

  • Ability to make necessary inferences and connections to background knowledge.

  • Lexical knowledge may be triggered

  • Syntactic knowledge of the texts to be written may be triggered

  • Rhetorical problems may be coped with

  • Semantic problems may be coped with

  • Connections between essays, real-life experiences and general content knowledge can be considered


The study

THE STUDY

  • Fumiko Yoshimura (2009)

  • Forty two Japanese university students majoring in English

  • A checklist, consisting of 20 questions

  • An experimental group and a control group

  • Week I: The first writing task on “Classify the usage of computers in higher education in three different ways?”

  • Week II: A reading task with the checklist

  • Week II: The second writing task

  • A survey about their reading and writing behaviors.


The purpose of the study

THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

  • To show if reading and writing lessons can be related to and integrated with each other

  • To show the effects of using a checklist that guides students to read a text and to promote the development of writing ability of students


The research questions

THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS

  • Whether and how connecting reading and writing affects EFL learners’ behavior.

  • Whether and how reading a related text affects EFL learners’ writing performance.

  • Whether and how the checklist affects EFL learners’ reading behavior.

  • Whether and how the checklist affects EFL learners’ writing behavior.

  • Whether and how the checklist affects EFL learners’ writing performance.


The results of the study

THE RESULTS OF THE STUDY

  • Connecting reading and writing seems to affect EFL learners’ behavior positively.

  • Reading a related text seems to contribute to improve EFL learners’ subsequent writing performance significantly.

  • The checklist seems to help EFL learners’ reading comprehension and influence their reading process.

  • The checklist seems to support learners’ writing performance slightly by helping them integrate background knowledge and textual knowledge effectively and by having them consider the genre.


Prediction

prediction

  • Our students can also develop their content and organizational knowledge through the use of reading checklist.

  • As motivated and high level students (B2) participate in this study, we predict they will benefit from this application.


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