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Fusions:. Rock and the World. Fusion. As rock dominates popular music in U.S. and Europe, other types of music have to Reject influence Incorporate rock into national or established styles = fusion. Rock Fusions - Types. Fusion popular mostly in country of native music

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Rock and the World


  • As rock dominates popular music in U.S. and Europe, other types of music have to

    • Reject influence

    • Incorporate rock into national or established styles

      • = fusion

Rock fusions types
Rock Fusions - Types

  • Fusion popular mostly in country of native music

    • Ex. Yoruban Highlife

  • Popularity outside of native country

  • Become part of rock mainstream

Jazz rock fusion
Jazz-Rock Fusion

  • Jazz influence on solos, individual songs

  • Bands or artists whose sound is heavily influenced by jazz

    • Ex: Chicago, Blood, Sweat and Tears

  • Jazz artists incorporate rock beats, ensembles into modern jazz

Miles davis
Miles Davis

  • Jazz trumpeter

  • Innovator of many different jazz styles

    • Bebop

    • Cool jazz

    • Free jazz

  • Album Bitches’ Brew primary testament of jazz-rock fusion

    • Ex: Pharoah’s Dance

World music fusions
World music fusions

  • “World music” popular in U.S. from early 20th c.

    • Afro - Cuban dances: mambo, rhumba

    • Brazilian: samba

      • Sixteen-beat style beat

      • Complicated rhythmic interplay between parts

Latin rock fusion
Latin-Rock fusion

  • Little influence beyond Latin rhythms, percussion

  • More directly influences jazz, blues, R&B

  • Influence on rock delayed until 1960s

Carlos santana 1947
Carlos Santana (1947- )

  • Mexican-born guitarist

  • Forms Santana Blues Band in San Francisco in 1966

    • Fused blues and Afro-Cuban rhythms

    • Heavy Latin flavor

Santana style characteristics
Santana - Style characteristics

  • Rhythmic layering

    • Two conga drummers + auxiliary Latin percussion + rock drummer

    • Drums frequently create cross-rhythms, polyrhythms

  • Little to no emphasis on backbeat

  • Organ/electric keyboards integral part of sound

  • Lyrics sometimes in Spanish

Santana oye como va
Santana - Oye Como Va

  • Cover of mambo by Tito Puente

  • Opening organ riff – Latin rhythms

  • As is bass riff – but don’t coincide

  • Guitar riff laid over that

    • Distortion, pedal effects

    • Riff drops out under vocals

    • Forms basis for solos, bridges


  • Most popular world music/rock fusion

  • imported from Jamaica in early 70s

  • Huge influence on rock, popular music

Roots of reggae
Roots of Reggae

  • Jamaican musicians in late ‘50s-’60s start to play American R&B

  • Some bands fuse R&B and jump blues with mento

    • Jamaican folk music

  • Resulting fusion = ska


  • 4 beat style beat, like swing

  • Accent on afterbeats = in between beats (1 and 2 and3 and4 and)

    • Creates overall sense of delay

  • Little emphasis on the bass

Derrick morgan lover boy
Derrick Morgan - Lover Boy

  • Most ska includes horns

    • Influenced by Mexican Mariachi

  • Often R&B influenced sax solos

  • Another example – Prince Buster – “Madness”

Rock steady
Rock Steady

  • Emerges c. 1965

  • Ska influenced by Stax soul

    • Gospel influence, call-and-response vocals

    • Heavier bass lines

  • Slower, more flexible rhythmically

  • Example – Derrick Morgan, “Tougher than Tough”

Jamaican rock fusion in uk
Jamaican rock fusion in UK

  • First: UK hit My Boy Lollipop - Millie Small (1963)

    • produced by Chris Johnson, founder of Island Records

  • More exposure on radio than in Jamaica

  • Ska and rock steady disseminated via “sound systems”

Toasting and dubbing
Toasting and Dubbing

  • Sound system DJs lay down rhythmic patter over intro to ska and rock steady records

    = toasting

  • DJs start to manipulate record to extend, alter intro

    • dubbing

  • Eventually dubs(heavily produced remixes of singles or new instrumentals) recorded in studio


  • From Toots and the Maytals “Do the Reggay”

  • Slow, loping tempo

  • Greater rhythmic complexity than rock steady

    • Supported by syncopated bass riffs

    • normally avoid first beat of bar

Popularity of reggae
Popularity of Reggae

  • Reggae rhythms arrived in U.S., U.K. by 1970

    • Johnny Nash, I Can See Clearly Now

    • Paul Simon, Mother and Child Reunion

  • First Jamaican reggae star Jimmy Cliff

    • Several modest hits in U.K.

    • Stars in 1972 film The Harder They Come

    • Cult hit in the U.S.

  • Bob marley 1945 81
    Bob Marley (1945-81)

    • Lead singer of the Wailers

    • First album, Catch a Fire, first real reggae album.

      • Second – Burnin’ – hit in U.S.

      • Exposure from Clapton’s cover of “I Shot The Sheriff”

    Bob marley characteristics
    Bob Marley - Characteristics

    • Lyrics political/social commentary

      • Rastafarianism

      • Social justice

    • Keyboards crucial part of ensemble

    • Jamaican percussion plays prominent role

    • Moderate to slow tempos

    Bob marley and the wailers get up stand up
    Bob Marley and the Wailers - Get Up, Stand Up

    • Very socially conscious lyrics

    • Several layers of rhythmic activity

      • Bass riff (different in verse, refrain)

      • Ska beat in cymbal, guiro

      • Keyboard

      • Drums (rock beat)

    • Thick, dense texture

    • Primary interest rhythmic

    Reggae influence
    Reggae - Influence

    • Reggae-inspired hits common in late 70s-early 80s: Paul Simon, Blondie, Stevie Wonder, Police

    • Crucial component of late ‘70s-early ‘80s post-punk new wave