Cpmr in the world from periphery to interface communication at cpmr conference bayonne 3 oct 2008
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Cpmr in the world from periphery to interface communication at cpmr conference bayonne 3 oct 2008

Claude GRASLAND

&

the members of the project

ESPON 3.4.1” Europe in the World”

RIATE : B. Corminboeuf, C. Didelon, N. Lambert, I. Salmon, C. Dupuy-Levy - IGEAT : L. Aujean, G. Van Hammes, P. Medina, C. Vandermotten - ITPS: M. Johansson, D. Rauhut -LADYSS : P. Beckouche, Y. Richard, G. Motte -UMR Géographie-cités : N. Cattan, C. Grasland, C. Grataloup, G. Lesecq, C. Zanin - CRS HAS: G. Barta - TIGRIS O. Groza, ETH Zurich : M. Keiner -GRUPO SOGES : A. Vanolo – ORMES : M. Charef, A. Whabi – NORDREGIO : C. Smith

CPMR IN THE WORLD : From Periphery to Interface ?Communication at CPMR conferenceBayonne, 3 Oct. 2008


Introduction 2 questions about cpmr

INTRODUCTION2 questions about CPMR


Question 1 what is a peripheral region

Question 1 : What is a “peripheral” region ?

So … a peripheral region is a region of EU located out of the « pentagon », but …


Question 1 what is a peripheral region1

Question 1 : What is a “peripheral” region ?

"We in Poland make a distinction between the southern dimension and the eastern dimension [of the ENP] and it consists in this -- to the south, we have neighbors of Europe, to the east we have European neighbors," Sikorski said.


Question 2 what is territorial cohesion

Question 2 : What is «territorial cohesion » ?

  • « Territorial cohesion is related to mechanism of solidarity between territories at different spatial scales:

  • States belonging to the same political entity

  • Regions belonging to the same political entity

  • Regions of the same state

  • Territories of the same region

  • Places of the same urban territory »

  • Technical note of the general secretary of CPMR about « Territorial cohesion », May 2008


Question 2 what is territorial cohesion1

Question 2 : What is «territorial cohesion » ?


Question 2 what is territorial cohesion2

Question 2 : What is «territorial cohesion » ?


Question 2 what is territorial cohesion3

Question 2 : What is «territorial cohesion » ?


Question 2 what is territorial cohesion4

Question 2 : What is «territorial cohesion » ?


Question 2 what is territorial cohesion5

Question 2 : What is «territorial cohesion » ?


Question 2 what is territorial cohesion6

Question 2 : What is «territorial cohesion » ?


Claude grasland the members of the project espon 3 4 1 europe in the world

PLAN

  • Mental maps & Political visions

  • European « Neighbourhood »

  • Proposals for EU & CPMR

Jan. 2008 Dec. 2008


Part i mental maps and political visions

PART IMENTAL MAPS AND POLITICAL VISIONS


Question 1 draw on the following map a line defining your delimitation of europe

Question 1 : Draw on the following map a line defining YOUR delimitation of Europe ?


An example of complicated answer

An example of (complicated) Answer


Result of the survey on espon members

Result of the survey on ESPON members


Question 2 draw on the following map lines defining your division of the world in 2 to 15 regions

Question 2 : Draw on the following map lines defining YOUR division of the World in 2 to 15 regions


An example of very sophisticated answer

An example of (very) sophisticated answer …


Claude grasland the members of the project espon 3 4 1 europe in the world

Groënland

Russia

Turkey

Northern

Africa


Claude grasland the members of the project espon 3 4 1 europe in the world

Part II

DEFINITION OF

ESPON (EU27+2) NEIGHBOURHOOD


A theoretical approach

A THEORETICAL APPROACH


An empirical approach

AN EMPIRICAL APPROACH


Criteria 1 accessibility

Criteria 1 : ACCESSIBILITY


Criteria 2 historical links

Criteria 2 : HISTORICAL LINKS


Criteria 3 interactions

Criteria 3 : INTERACTIONS


Criteria 4 complementarities

Criteria 4 : COMPLEMENTARITIES


Synthetic index of eu27 2 influence

SYNTHETIC INDEX OF EU27+2 INFLUENCE


Synthetic index of influence

SYNTHETIC INDEX OF INFLUENCE


Synthetic index of influence1

SYNTHETIC INDEX OF INFLUENCE


Strategig typology

STRATEGIG TYPOLOGY


Type a integration ukrainia tunisia russia turkey

Type A : Integration(Ukrainia, Tunisia, Russia, Turkey, …)

  • States localised in the immediate neighbourhood of EU+2 whose trade and air relations are strongly polarised by EU+2.

  • They do not necessary share a common language or religion but they are fully integrated to EU+2 from functional point of view and their delimitation fit to the area of the neighbourhood policy

  • What is at stake is not the question of membership to EU or belonging to “Europe” but the existence of an area of cooperation based on proximity and complementarities.


Type b responsability cameroon nigeria senegal congo

Type B : Responsability(Cameroon, Nigeria, Senegal, Congo, …)

  • States for which EU+2 has a great responsibility in their future development.

  • First because the historical responsibility of colonization and exploitation of African countries.

  • Second because Africa could be a major centre of the World production in the future and its young population will be an opportunity.

  • Many other world powers are actually investing in this area (Japan, China, Brazil, USA, …) and the historical influence of Europe is decreasing very quickly.


Type c opportunity usa australia brazil india isra l

Type C : Opportunity(USA, Australia, Brazil, India, Israël, …)

  • Countries located at relatively long distance from EU+2 but sharing a common language or a common history.

  • They could be very precious allies for EU+2 in a global World were services represented the major part of added value and where scientific and cultural innovations are major factors of long term development.

  • Concern English speaking developed countries like USA, Canada, Australia or New Zealand which has always been in strong relation with European countries (both politically and economically),

  • But also emerging countries (India, Brazil, Mexico) which are crucial strategic partners for the future of Europe as they are actually relatively independent from the influence of other major competitors of European Union (China, Japan, USA).


Type d challenge china japan saudi arabia iran iraq

Type D : Challenge(China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq…)

  • Countries on which EU+2 is less able to have an influence or to develop easily relations because of differences of languages, geographical distance, weakness of historical relations...

  • But those countries are located in a space where energetic resources are great and the economies are the most dynamic.

  • EU+2 countries and firms are actually very attracted and fascinated by this part of the World where they try to invest and to gain positions.

  • But we can really ask if it is a reasonable strategy in long term. The geopolitical and cultural influence of EU+2 countries is indeed particularly week in this part of the world and they have no controls on what could happen in case of economic and political crisis.


Part iii which proposals for eu in general and for peripheral regions in particular

PART IIIWHICH PROPOSALSFOR EU (in general) AND FOR PERIPHERAL REGIONS (in particular)?


Proposal 1 link global and local perspectives

PROPOSAL 1 : Link global and local perspectives


Proposal 1 link global and local perspectives1

PROPOSAL 1 : Link global and local perspectives


Proposal 2 explore both northern eastern and southern neighbourhoods

PROPOSAL 2 : Explore both northern, eastern and southern neighbourhoods


Proposal 2 explore both northern eastern and southern neighbourhoods1

PROPOSAL 2 : Explore both northern, eastern and southern neighbourhoods


Proposal 2 explore both northern eastern and southern neighbourhoods2

PROPOSAL 2 : Explore both northern, eastern and southern neighbourhoods


Proposal 3 explore new type of flows and networks linking eu and the world

PROPOSAL 3 : Explore new type of flows and networks linking EU and the World


Proposal 3 explore new type of flows and networks linking eu and the world1

PROPOSAL 3 : Explore new type of flows and networks linking EU and the World


Proposal 3 explore new type of flows and networks linking eu and the world2

PROPOSAL 3 : Explore new type of flows and networks linking EU and the World


Proposal 3 explore new type of flows and networks linking eu and the world3

PROPOSAL 3 : Explore new type of flows and networks linking EU and the World


Claude grasland the members of the project espon 3 4 1 europe in the world

PROPOSAL 4 : Take into account space time dynamics


Proposal 4 take into account space time dynamics

PROPOSAL 4 : Take into account space time dynamics


Claude grasland the members of the project espon 3 4 1 europe in the world

PROPOSAL 4 : Take into account space time dynamics


Proposal 5 build strategic visions of europe in the world

PROPOSAL 5 : Build strategic visions of Europe in the World


The continent vision towards a protected and closed european territory

THE “CONTINENT” VISION: towards a protected and closed European territory


Expected impact of the continent vision

Expected impact of the “Continent vision”

  • Territorial assets:(i) Trans European Networks implemented at a large European scale(ii) Central & Eastern European benefit from Western subsidies and FDI(iii) The Regional Policy focuses on CEEC’s less developed areas

  • Shortcomings:(i) negative impact on EU’s peripheral territories (Eastward, e.g. Baltic States are no more the interface between Russia and UE; and Southward)(ii) Eastern markets are not sufficien per se for Western investors(iii) Europe as a « great Swiss »


The centre periphery vision towards a dissymmetrical eu neighbourhood pattern

THE “CENTRE-PERIPHERY” VISION: towards a dissymmetrical EU / neighbourhood pattern


Expected impact of the centre periphery vision

Expected impact of the “Centre-Periphery” vision

  • Assets:(i) a greater euromediterranean integration, despite dissymmetrical (2010 FTZ)(ii) Mediterranean European territories are boosted(iii) Europe catches up with Asian and American counterparts (although not on the high-tech base of the Lisbon strategy)

  • Shortcomings:(i) the relocation of the environmental burden on the southern shore of the Mediterranean is not sustainable(iii) no de-pollution of the Mediterranean(iii) no change in the migration mix: lowly educated migrants toward mediterranean Europe(iv) Southern brain drain is not stopped(v) North Africa as the Europe’s gatekeeper against poor African migrants


The archipelago vision toward rising territorial polarisation

THE “ARCHIPELAGO” VISION: toward rising territorial polarisation


Expected impact of the archipelago vision

Expected impact of the “Archipelago” vision

  • Assets:(i) major European cities become highly internationalized metropolitan areas(ii) Western countries benefit much from such international metropolis(iii) these Wetern metropolis are most integrated in a top urban network

  • Shortcomings:(i) increase of territorial disparities in Europe(ii) Eastern member states rapidly loose their competitive advantage (rise of costs in their capital cities)(iii) dramatic destabilisation of the Med neighbours (rough 2010 liberalisation)(iv)Border: toward the « continent » vision


The north south region vision an attempt of pro active scenario

THE “NORTH-SOUTH REGION ” VISION: an attempt of pro-active scenario


Expected impact of the north south region vision

Expected impact of the “North-South Region” vision

  • Assets:(i) Complementarity between Europe (capital, know how) and its neighbours (markets, labour forces)(ii) a regulated relationship (trade agreements but also environment, labour rights, …)(iii) Europe peripheral territories are boosted(iv) the European region becomes the major one in the World

  • Shortcomings: 0 (it’s politics, stupid !)


Conclusion 2 answers to cpmr

CONCLUSION2 answers to CPMR


Claude grasland the members of the project espon 3 4 1 europe in the world

TERRITORIAL COHESION ?

Toward multiscalar governance

GLOBAL/ EUROPEAN

CONTEXT

+

EUROPEAN / NEIGHBOURHOOD

CONTEXT

+

EUROPEAN/ NATIONAL/REGIONAL CONTEXT

+

NATIONAL/REGIONAL/ LOCAL CONTEXT


Claude grasland the members of the project espon 3 4 1 europe in the world

RETHINKING CPMR ?

From peripheries to interface


Thank you for your attention

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION !


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