Coconut the tree of life
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Coconut: The Tree of Life - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Coconut: “The Tree of Life”. Mai Kao Yang. History (in theory). Theory 80 million years ago Southern Hemisphere, Gondwana. History. 4 th -century B.C ., Sanskrit’s writing 1 st –century to 4 th century A.D, Tamil literature India

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History in theory
History (in theory)

  • Theory

    • 80 million years ago

    • Southern Hemisphere, Gondwana


  • 4th-century B.C., Sanskrit’s writing

  • 1st–century to 4th century A.D, Tamil literature

    • India

      • 2-3 thousands years ago, making it the oldest traditional crop grown

    • Marco Polo

    • Expedition to India, recognize it as the “Pharaoh's nut”

Global Economy

  • 1996

    • Indonesia~ 3,745 hectares 6. Malaysia~ 208

    • Philippines~ 3,093 7. Papua New Guinea~ 260

    • India~ 1, 796

    • Sri Lanka~ 419

    • Thailand~ 377


Kerala state is the lead of production in India

Located at the south tip, bordering water and closest to equator

Coconut management
Coconut Management

  • Highly sensitive to soil moisture

    • Rainfall total of 1800 mm evenly throughout the year

    • As little as 1000 mm will prove to be optimum

    • Takes up to a year for coconuts to mature

      • Bloom up to thirteen times a year

      • Continuous harvest year-round

      • Average harvest of 60 coconuts/ tree

      • Some trees yielding at three times that amount


  • A number of devices have been developed to assist in the

  • processes of harvesting and dehusk coconut operation

  • Devices are electrical and/or solar generated

Modern Method

Traditional Method

Oil Milling


  • Coconut crab aka robber crab

    • Type of hermit crab

    • 1 meter in length

    • 3 kilogram in weight

    • Can actually drown

  • Cattle

    • By-product (oil cake) of coconut after extraction for oil fuel

  • Recently start appearing and

  • is on high demand

    • Nata-de-coco; meat of mature coconut

    • Desiccated coconut; dried and

    • shredded coconut flakes

    • Spray dried coconut cream powder

    • Skim milk

  • Health concern
    Health Concern?!?!

    • 1930, misconception that coconut and coconut oil are health hazard

      • Thought to cause heart disease

      • Is pretty “fatty”, little over 50% of coconut contain medium chain fatty acid, Lauric acid

      • Once in the human body it changes to monlaurins , which is found in mother’s breast milk

    • Coconut is the next best option to breast milk

    Addition Health Benefits

    Powerful against - Antibacterial - Antiviral - Antifungal agents - HIV are sensitive to coconut oil•Excellent moisturizer for dry skin•Coconut oil is absorbed quickly and give energy like carbohydrate


    • Epic, classic Hindu stories: Ramayana

    • Coconut hold a high place in the Indian culture, no ritual or ceremony is performed without it

      • Used in both social and religious ceremonies: worshipping, marriages, festivals, decorations, etc.

  • Small farmers are the backbone to the coconut culture

    • Coconut provide sole income but, the price of coconut is determined by coconut oil which is influence by supplies and demand

  • Case study coir women workers
    Case Study~ Coir Women Workers


    Home-based cottage industry

    50% are without electricity

    Majority of the women in the village work in the factory

    Work every day, except Sunday,

    Shift from 8 to 5:30 p.m.

    Work outside in all types of weather

    Interact with the middleman


    • Small village factory

    • 13% are without electricity

    • Employ regular 8-10 women each day

    • Normal shift: 8 to 6 p.m.

    • High demand: two shift period

      • 6:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m.

      • 2:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m.

    • Lunch hours 1.5 hours

    • Don’t interact with the middleman


    • Doesn’t matter if working in a small village factory or a home-based

    • cottage industry

      • Both wages and conditions remains the same for women coir workers

    • in Kerala

    • Stakeholder: lack of technology is hurting, however, the women fear

    • that with it, they will be put out of work


    • Mix-cropping system

      • Australia: coconut, cocoa, coffee along with cattle grazing

      • Ceylon/ Sri Lanka: coconut, tea, and rubber

    • Coir products: husk from the coconut are bio-degradability

    • India

      • Biomass fuel supply average size family, 30-40 palm tree

    • Coconut oil fuel

      • By- products: “oil cake” is fed to cattle

        “The day of coconut as mainly or solely a monoculture appears to be almost over.”