Adhesive bonding
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Adhesive bonding. Ville Liimatainen 05.03.2013. Contents. Introduction Adhesive bonding Process overview Main features Polymer adhesives Adhesive bonding technology Bond characterization Applications Conclusion. Adhesive bonding.

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Adhesive bonding

Adhesive bonding

Ville Liimatainen

05.03.2013


Contents

Contents

  • Introduction

    • Adhesive bonding

    • Process overview

    • Main features

  • Polymer adhesives

  • Adhesive bonding technology

  • Bond characterization

  • Applications

  • Conclusion


Adhesive bonding1

Adhesive bonding

  • An intermediate adhesive layer is used to bond two surfaces

  • Successfully used in many industries

    • Cars

    • Airplanes

    • Space shuttles

  • Initially not significant in semiconductor wafer bonding research

    • Small bonding areas (chip-level bonding)

  • An established wafer bonding method nowadays


Process overview

Process overview

  • Polymer adhesive applied to one or both surfaces

  • Pressure applied to force the surfaces into close contact

  • Adhesive cured from liquid or viscoelastic state into solid state

    • UV, heat, pressure...


Main features

Main features

  • Bonding conditions

    • From RT to ~400°C

    • Low to moderate bonding pressure

  • Pros and cons

    • Low bonding temperature

    • Works with practically any materials

    • Comparably simple, robust, low-cost

    • No hermetic bonds

    • Limited temperature stability

    • Long-term stability in harsh environments?

  • Applications

    • MEMS

    • Sensor packaging

    • 3D IC

    • Temporary bonds


Polymer adhesives

Polymer adhesives

Epoxies

UV epoxies (e.g. SU8)

Positive and negative photoresists

Benzocyclobutene (BCB)

Flare

Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)

Fluoropolymers

Polyimides

Methylsilsesquioxane (MSSQ)

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)

Thermosetting copolyesters (ATSP)

Thermoplastic copolymers (PVDC)

Parylene

Liquid-crystal polymers (LCP)

Waxes

Polymers are large molecules consisting of linked small molecules (monomers)

  • Hardening

    • Solvent evaporation (drying adhesives)

    • Solidification upon cooling (hot melts)

    • Polymerization by chemical reactions (polymer precursors)

      • Mixing of two components, heat, light, moisture...

  • Deposition on wafer surfaces

    • Spin coating, spray coating, electrodeposition, stamping, screen printing, brushing, dispensing

    • CVD (thin films), lamination of films or sheets

  • Selection for wafer bonding

    • Compatibility

    • Physical properties: mechanical and thermal stability, creep strength

    • Chemical resistance, chemical stability


Adhesive bonding technology

Adhesive bonding technology

  • Tools

    • Wafer bonders

    • Substrate lamination tools

      • For temporary bonding, CMP, grinding

    • Die bonders

      • For packaging

  • Alignment techniques

    • Back-side alignment, SmartView, IR, transparent wafer, through-wafer holes etc.

Wafer bonder schematic

Substrate lamination tool schematic

Schematic of the ITEC die bonder principle(NXP Semiconductors)


Adhesive bonding processes

Adhesive bonding processes

  • SU-8 and BCB widely established adhesives for MEMS and electronic component production

  • Example process: Benzocyclobutene (BCB)

    • Clean the wafers (e.g. H2O2 + H2SO4 or oxygen plasma)

    • Apply adhesion promoter (spin-coat, spray-coat)

    • Deposit BCB by spin or spray coating (usually 1 – 50µm)

    • Softbake, pattern and dry etch the BCB or Expose and develop

    • Soft curing to remove solvents and volatile substances (< 300°C, ambient air)

    • Bonding in a vacuum chamber

      • Establish vacuum

      • Bring the surfaces in contact

      • Apply bonding pressure and heat (180 - 320°C, 30 to 240 minutes)

      • Chamber purge, cool down, release pressure


Bond characterization

Bond characterization

  • Wafer bond quality

    • Defect rate

    • Bond strength

    • Stresses

    • Hermeticity

    • Stability

  • Common techniques

    • Bond interface imaging

    • Bond strength measurement

    • Bond hermeticity measurement

acoustic imaging

IR imaging

SEM imaging


Applications

Applications

3D integrated circuits

  • Fabrication of 3D ICs

  • Integration of ICs with MEMS

  • Fabrication of microcavities for packaging

  • Thin film solar cells

  • RF components

  • BioMEMS

Thin film and device transfer

for MEMS/IC integration

Thin film solar cells

Hydrophobic valves

Microcavities for packaging


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Adhesive bonding is an established method for MEMS, ICs, their integration and packaging

  • Advantages

    • Low bonding temperature < 200°C

    • Applicable to various wafer materials and structures

    • Wide selection of adhesives adjusted for MEMS and electronic components available

    • Compensation of surface non-uniformities and contamination

    • No electric voltage or current involved

    • Chemical resistance

    • Simple and low-cost process

  • Drawbacks

    • No hermetic sealing (possible with a diffusion barrier)

    • Limited temperature stability

    • Limited long-term stability in harsh environments

    • Variance of the gap between the bonded surfaces

    • (Relatively) low bond strengths


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