351 - Spath. Colonialism & Its Legacy. The Ottoman Empire. What are we talking about? Imperialism and Colonialism both refer to the establishment of political and economic control by one state or empire over a foreign territory. But they are different.
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Colonialism & Its Legacy
Imperialism and Colonialism both refer to the establishment of political and economic control by one state or empire over a foreign territory. But they are different.
-- Colonialism - transfer of population to a new territory, where the new arrivals lived as permanent settlers while maintaining political allegiance to their country of origin.
-- Imperialism – one country exercises power over another, whether through settlement, sovereignty, or indirect mechanisms of control.
So colonialism is a kind of imperialism.
The main force…was ordered to advance via Kandahar, with an immense train of 38,000 camp followers, 30,000 camels and a large herd of cattle. If there was one thing on which its British officers were clear, it was that they were going to have a comfortable campaign. One regiment took with it its pack of foxhounds, another employed two camels merely to carry its stock of cigars, junior officers were accompanied by as many as forty servants and one senior officer needed as many as sixty camels to carry his personal effects. In December 1838, thus encumbered, the 20,000-strong “Army of the Indus” set out on its invasion…
Ancient region with longest history of human settlement only recently organizing into sovereign states
Justification of colonialism by European powers as venture to modernize and develop ‘backward’ people, but had opposite effect
What considerations went into drawing borders?
Business-like, realistic, calculated. Consistently readjusts to maintain maximum gains at lowest cost
Main goal is preservation of overall empire, control of extractable resources and maintaining access to India
Use of overwhelming force in beginning, then try to minimize need for costly action
Use of “treaties” to diffuse crises and maintain critical advantages
No attempt to destroy previous institutions and social structure
Effective manipulation of elites to reduce cost of occupation
Consistent reliance on force and coercion to subdue resistance
Creation of a caste-like system with Europeans (mostly French) at top
Main goal is to exploit land and indigenous labor
Destruction of indigenous institutions, cultures and social structures
Replacing the indigenous culture with awe of French culture without providing an empowering education
Disregard for pre-existing elites
Creation of faits accomplis (facts on the ground), and adopting an “all or nothing” attitude towards the colonyBritish & French colonial styles in the MENA area
1 million Europeans (1954) with Full rights
Controlled 98% of premium arable land
Owned large holdings or lived in the wealthy European Quarter
Almost all children had access to schooling
Average income for European farmer: 780,000 FF
9 Million Muslims (1954) Subject to forced labor, detention without due process
Land could be seized and given to colons at any time (215 million acres between 1871 and 1919)
Were left with arid agricultural land
Most lived in slums or as impoverished farmers
One child in ten was given schooling, as much as 1 in 70 in some areas
Average income for Muslim farmer: 22,000 FFColonizer & colonized in colonial Algeria