Life in space overcoming the human physiological effects of long duration space flight
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Life in Space: Overcoming the Human Physiological Effects of Long Duration Space Flight. Stanford University E235: Space Systems Engineering Winter Presentations. Julie Litzenberger. March 4, 2004. History of Human Spaceflight. Mercury Program Alan Sheppard, May 5, 1961

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Life in space overcoming the human physiological effects of long duration space flight

Life in Space:Overcoming the Human Physiological Effects of Long Duration Space Flight

Stanford University

E235: Space Systems Engineering

Winter Presentations

Julie Litzenberger

March 4, 2004


History of human spaceflight

History of Human Spaceflight

  • Mercury Program

    • Alan Sheppard, May 5, 1961

    • John Glenn, February 20, 1962

  • Gemini Program

  • Apollo Program

  • Skylab Project

  • Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

  • MIR Space Station

  • International Space Station

http://www-pao.ksc.nasa.gov/kscpao/history/mercury/mercury.htm


Physiological influences of spaceflight

Physiological Influences of Spaceflight

  • Microgravity

  • Radiation

  • Neurobehavior and psychology

  • Nutrition, physical fitness, and rehabilitation

  • Remote medical support

  • Closed-loop life support

http://spaceresearch.nasa.gov/general_info/issphysiology.html

http://www.spacekids.com/spacenews/shuttlefood_day3_991222.html


Physiological influences of spaceflight1

Physiological Influences of Spaceflight

  • Microgravity

  • Radiation

  • Neurobehavior and psychology

  • Nutrition, physical fitness, and rehabilitation

  • Remote medical support

  • Closed-loop life support

http://spaceresearch.nasa.gov/general_info/issphysiology.html

http://www.spacekids.com/spacenews/shuttlefood_day3_991222.html


Microgravity

Microgravity

  • Bone mass loss

  • Muscle alterations and atrophy

  • Cardiovascular variations

  • Immunology, infection, and hematology

  • Sleep and chronobiology

http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/Newsroom/X-Press/stories/011003/ppl_astro.html


1 bone mass loss

[2]

[4]

[5]

1. Bone Mass Loss

[1]

[3]

[1] http://www.karger.com/gazette/65/anderson2/images/anderson2_1_s.jpg

[4] http://www.brooks.af.mil/HSW/PA/Centrifuge%20fact_files/image004.gif

[2] http://www.mc.vanderbilt.edu/vicc/lungspore/projects/pills.jpg

[3] http://eduserv.hscer.washington.edu/hubio553/totrad/SCAR/Images/transversetibiafx.jpg

[5] http://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov/kids/L&W/pixs/81368031.jpg


2 muscle alterations and atrophy

2. Muscle Alterations and Atrophy

  • Loss of muscle strength associated with decreased mechanical loading

  • Countermeasures:

    • High-resistance exercise

    • Pharmaceutical Treatments

      • Genetic, cellular, and physiological processes

      • Applications to muscle wasting conditions experienced on Earth


3 cardiovascular variations

3. Cardiovascular Variations

  • Reduced cardiac mass due to deconditioning

  • Postflight impairment of cardiovascular responses when standing upright and exercising; may cause dizziness or fainting

  • Inflight heart rhythm disturbances

  • Earth applications

http://w3.uokhsc.edu/phar5442/Lectures/Cardiovascularexerciseeffects.html


4 immunology infection and hematology

4. Immunology, Infection, and Hematology

  • Weakening of the immune system

  • Activation of dormant viruses

  • Interference with wound healing

  • Loss of head-to-toe blood pressure gradient and radiation effects on bone marrow may cause anemia


5 sleep and chronobiology

Prevent sleep loss

Promote wakefulness

Reduce human error

Optimize mental and physical performance

Applications: Safety of people involved in jobs requiring international travel, shift work, and extended work schedules

5. Sleep and Chronobiology

http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/toc.asp?s=Living%20in%20Space


Radiation

Radiation


Radiation1

Radiation

  • Radiation levels hundreds of times greater than on Earth

    • Solar proton events

    • Galactic cosmic rays

  • Physiological effects:

    • Kill cells

    • Damages tissue

    • Causes cellular mutations that can lead to cancer, central nervous system damage, cataracts

  • Pharmaceuticals, shielding


Neurobehavior and psychology

Neurobehavior and Psychology

Long term isolation and stress can affect crew health, safety, and productivity

  • Monitor brain functions and behavior

  • Countermeasures to enhance performance, motivation, and quality of life

  • Crew composition: leadership style, gender, age, expertise, organization, and communication


Space physiology research

Space Physiology Research

  • Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP)

  • National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI)

  • American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (ASGSB)


Research on the international space station

Research on the International Space Station

http://members.nova.org/~sol/accommod.htm


Space station biological research project ssbrp

Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP)

  • Host Systems

    • 2.5 M centrifuge

    • Habitat holding racks

    • Life Sciences Glovebox

  • Research units for small fresh water organisms, laboratory rats and mice, insects, quail and chicken eggs, plants, cell and tissue culture

  • Incubator for life science research

  • Dosimeter to measure biologically active space radiation


Research on earth

Research on Earth


National space biomedical research institute nsbri

National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI)

Space Research

Earth Applications

http://www.nsbri.org/NewsPublicOut/Gallery.html


American society for gravitational and space biology asgsb

American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (ASGSB)

  • “…members are drawn from university, government, and industry and represent many disciplines bonded by a interest in a common issue, gravity”

  • Research, education, training and development in gravitational and space biology

  • Annual scientific publication and meeting


Additional space life science organizations

Additional Space Life Science Organizations

  • NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research – OBPR

  • Aerospace Medical Association – AsMA

  • European Low Gravity Research Association – ELGRA

  • Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space – JSBSS

  • International Society for Gravitational Physiology

  • Center for Advanced Studies in the Space Life Sciences

  • Committee for Space Research – COSPAR

  • International Astronautical Federation – IAF

  • American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics – AIAA

  • Universities Space Research Association - USRA


Still to come

Still to come…

  • Analysis of:

    • Biological experiments that have been and need to be executed to better understand physiological effects of spaceflight

    • Countermeasures

      • Artificial gravity

      • Pharmaceuticals

      • Radiation Shielding

    • Habitats on the moon and Mars

    • Closed-loop life support

    • Space Suit Design


Still to come1

Still to come…

  • International Cooperation

    • Russian experience in space

    • China’s plans to go to the moon

    • Aurora program

  • Public Service Announcement

    • Spin-off technologies


New idea

NEW IDEA!

  • Public Service Announcement: Space Spinoff Technologies; medical advances

    How used in space

    How used on Earth

Near infrared (NIR)

spectroscopic techniques

Blood glucose

measurements


Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

    www.nasa.gov

  • Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP)

    http://brp.arc.nasa.gov/

  • National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI)

    http://www.nsbri.org/

  • American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (ASGSB)

    http://www.asgsb.org/


Questions

Questions?


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