International aspects of raising capital
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International aspects of raising capital. What are the main sources of funding for an enterprise?. Internal Sources External Sources. External Sources. Where to borrow ? In what form ? Capital structure? Equity or debt? Choice of currency? Fixed or floating rate debt?. Equity financing.

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External sources
External Sources

  • Where to borrow ?

  • In what form ?

  • Capital structure?

  • Equity or debt?

  • Choice of currency?

  • Fixed or floating rate debt?


Equity financing
Equity financing

Activity 1

In which countries should equities be issued?


Other sources of funding
Other sources of funding

  • Parallel loans between corporations

  • Credit swaps between banks and corporations

  • Loans from host governments and development banks

  • Private-sector alternatives

  • World Bank group

  • Regional and National Development banks


Parallel or back to back loan
Parallel or back to back loan

  • The exchange of funds between firms in different countries with the exchange reversed at a later date

  • What are the advantages & problems of such deals?


Credit swaps
Credit swaps

  • Involves the exchange of currencies between an enterprise and a bank rather than 2 enterprises.

  • Advantages?


Special financing vehicles
Special financing vehicles

  • Suppliers’ credit

  • Buyers’ credit

  • International leasing of assets


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