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Peter T. Ausili Forensic Chemist, Drug Enforcement Administration North Central Laboratory (Presented to September 19, 2006) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Peter T. Ausili Forensic Chemist, Drug Enforcement Administration North Central Laboratory (Presented to September 19, 2006)

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  • Forensic Chemistry

  • Peter T. Ausili

  • Forensic Chemist, Drug Enforcement Administration

  • North Central Laboratory

  • (Presented to September 19, 2006)


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The following presentation does not reflect the comments

and/or opinions of the Drug Enforcement Administration or the U.S. Department of Justice.


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usajobs.gov


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  • Forensic: Application of Science to Assist Legal Decisions


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  • Rules of engagement:

  • You must ask questions – or I will

  • I am not here to lecture about drugs-unfortunately, I can’t avoid the subject completely

  • Learn something and have FUN


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  • Introduction

  • Chemistry

  • Legal Issues

    • Capacities

    • Bicarb ?

  • Pharmacology-Drug action

  • Miscellaneous

  • About DEA


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  • CHEMISTRY

  • Responsibility:

  • Analysis and identification of ALL CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES

  • Identify all substances greater than 1%

  • Determine Salt, Isomer and Purity as appropriate

  • Identify Adulterants and Diluents


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  • Chemical Analysis:

    • Sampling plan ?

  • Preliminary Screening

  • Confirmation:

    • GC/MS

    • FTIR

    • NMR

    • LC, LCMS

    • CE, CD-ORD

    • Purity


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  • Legal

  • Production Capacity

    • Clandestine Laboratories

      • Theoritical Yield

      • Substance containing vs. actual

  • Why analyze Sodium Bicarbonate?

  • Sentencing commission guidelines

    (Cure for insomnia)


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  • Pharmacology

    • Why do people use drugs

    • Effects mimic natural chemicals in the body

    • Similar chemical structure act on the same receptor sites---with effects of different intensity and duration


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  • KHAT (Catha Edulis)

  • Cathine

  • Cathinone


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  • Background

  • Primarily cultivated in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

  • Legal throughout most of Europe and Africa

  • Used since antiquity as a recreational and religious drug

    • Used by Alexander the Great

    • First historical reference in early 14th century

  • Important to the economies of Somalia, Yemen, Kenya and Ethiopia

  • More than 37 tons seized in the US in 2001 (EPIC)


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  • Legal Status

- Cathinone- Schedule I Final Action 2/93

- Produces a euphoric effect similar to amphetamine in that

it stimulates the Central nervous system

- Begins to degrade 48 hours after harvesting

- Proper handling can prolong potency

-Cathine- Schedule IV Final action 6/88

Produces a much less stimulant effect that cathinone


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  • Structural Similarities

Cathinone - I

Cathine - IV

Natural breakdown


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  • Structural Similarities

Cathinone

Cathine

Amphetamine

Methamphetamine


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  • Pharmacological Similarities

Cathine

Pseudoephedrine

Adrenaline


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  • Laboratory Concerns

  • Handling and preservation of samples in the field

  • Storage space in the laboratory

  • Analysis-preservation-judicial integrity

    • Since cathinone is labile (likely to undergo chemical change) the preservation of the sample after analysis is critical.


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  • Historical Commentary

KHAT is used in relatively poor regions, where the frequent lack of food encourages deficiency diseases. Consequently, in view of its stimulating effect, it is often not unnaturally regarded as a divine blessing. For populations with relatively few sources of distraction it constitutes a simple and convenient form of escapism.

Since khat is regarded as an excitant and stimulant like coffee, tea and the like, it is generally not considered prohibited by Koranic law and consequently there is no moral objection in Moslem countries against its abuse.

- Bulletin on Narcotics, 1956

.


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Web sites

www.ncstl.org

www.ussc.gov

Lycaeum

Erowid


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  • References

  • PIHKAL

  • TIHKAL


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  • Court

    • As experts, we are not advocates we can only seek scientific truth

    • Unusual cases

      • Ayahuasca > DMT


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  • Drug mixtures

  • Synergistic effects

    • MDMA

    • MDA

    • Caffeine

    • Lidocaine

    • Procaine

    • Diphenhydramine

    • Dimethylsulfone


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  • About DEA

  • We are responsible for only 1 law

  • Eight Chemical Analysis Labs

  • One Computer Forensics Lab

  • 200 Chemists/6000 Agents

  • North Central Lab covers 13 States


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Spectrum 33

4-Methoxyamphetamine

(PMA) M. W. 165


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Spectrum 34

4-Methoxymethamphetamine

(PMMA) M. W. 179


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