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Growth in the West, 1860–1900. Miners, ranchers, cowhands, and farmers help settle the West and conflict with Native Americans. The Bolter (1904), Charles M. Russell. NEXT. Growth in the West, 1860–1900. SECTION 1. Miners, Ranchers, and Cowhands. SECTION 2.

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

Growth in the West,

1860–1900

Miners, ranchers, cowhands, and farmers help settle the West and conflict with Native Americans.

The Bolter (1904), Charles M. Russell.

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

Growth in the West,

1860–1900

SECTION 1

Miners, Ranchers, and Cowhands

SECTION 2

Native Americans Fight to Survive

SECTION 3

Life in the West

SECTION 4

Farming and Populism

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

Section 1

Miners, Ranchers, and Cowhands

Miners, ranchers, and cowhands settle in the West seeking economic opportunities.

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

SECTION

1

Miners, Ranchers, and Cowhands

Geography and Population of the West

•Frontier—unsettled, sparsely settled area, Native Americans occupy

Map

•Great Plains—region from Missouri River to the Rockies

•Few whites settle in Great Plains, follow miners into California

•Despite Native American occupants, U.S. claims ownership, Great Plains

•Trains carry natural resources of the West to the East

•Bring white settlers to West, helps end Native American way of life

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SECTION

1

Mining in the West

•Miners rush to gold, silver strikes in Colorado, Nevada, South Dakota

•Boomtowns—towns that have fast economic population growth

Image

•Strikes draw people from Eastern, Western U.S., other parts of world

•Mining companies use equipment to dig deep, strip land

•Mining work dangerous, causes deadly cave-ins, lung problems

•Mining boom over by 1890s, many boomtowns become ghost towns

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SECTION

1

The Rise of the Cattle Industry

•Before 1860, small cattle herds in West, ranchers sell cattle locally

•Railroads make transport of cattle to Eastern cities possible

•Ranchers, livestock dealers make large profits

•Cowhands take cattle drives—long drives—to cow towns along railways

Map

•Follow specific trails, first is Chisholm Trail—San Antonio to Abilene

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SECTION

1

Vaqueros and Cowhands

•First cowhands, or vaqueros(Spanish word), come from Mexico

Image

•Help Spanish, Mexican ranchers, teach American cowhands to rope, ride

•Many cowhands are former soldiers, Mexicans, African Americans

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SECTION

1

The “Wild West”

•Cow towns have no local government, law officers

•Have gambling, “con men” are common

•Some Union, Confederate veterans bitter about war, become outlaws

•Some women become outlaws, Belle Starr, horse thief

•Vigilantes—people who take law into their own hands

•Try to protect citizens, catch criminals, punish them without trial

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SECTION

1

End of the Long Drives

•Cattle industry booms for about 20 years

•By 1886, several developments bring boom to an end:

-price of beef drops sharply

- farmers, sheep herders use barbed wire, end

open range

-many cattle die in harsh winter of 1886–1887

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Section 2

Native Americans Fight to Survive

The Native Americans of the Great Plains fight to maintain their way of life as

settlers pour onto their lands.

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SECTION

2

Native Americans Fight to Survive

Native American Life on the Plains

•Before Europeans arrive, Plains tribes live in villages along rivers

•Learn to ride horses brought by Spanish (early 1540s)

•Hunters ride far from their village seeking buffalo

Image

•Plains tribes use buffalo for food, use skins for shelter, clothing

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SECTION

2

A Clash of Cultures

•U.S. government promises huge area in West for Native Americans

Interactive

•White settlers pressure U.S. government for more land in West

•First Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851):

-many but not all Plains tribes sign

- allow U.S. government to buy back some Native

American land

- sets boundaries for tribal lands

Continued . . .

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

SECTION

2

continued A Clash of Cultures

•Some Cheyenne, Sioux resist treaty, fight settlers, soldiers, miners

•U.S. troops kill Cheyenne men, women, children—Sand Creek Massacre

•Plains tribes react, raid white settlements

•Second Treaty of Fort Laramie with Sioux (1868):- Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, Arapaho sign

- gives tribes land in Black Hills of South Dakota

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SECTION

2

Battle of the Little Bighorn

•Seeking gold, miners ignore Fort Laramie treaty, rush onto Sioux land

•Tribal leaders reject government offer to buy back land

•Many Sioux warriors flee reservation during winter of 1875–1876

•Reservation—land set aside for Native Americans

•Unite under Sioux chiefs; Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse

Image

Continued . . .

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SECTION

2

continued Battle of the Little Bighorn

•U.S. 7th cavalry sets out to return Sioux to reservation

•Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custercommands cavalry

•Fights thousands of Sioux, Cheyenne at Battle of Little Bighorn

•Custer, men wiped out, U.S. steps up military action against tribes

•Crazy Horse, Sitting Bull’s followers surrender, return to reservation

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SECTION

2

Resistance in the Northwest and Southwest

•U.S. government forces Nez Perce to sell land, move to Idaho

•Chief Joseph refuses, leads followers toward Canada, caught, surrenders

Image

•In Southwest, Navajo, Apache fight against being moved to reservations

•Navajo surrender to U.S. troops, take “Long Walk” to reservation

•Apache forced to settle on Arizona reservation, Geronimo refuses

•Leads Apaches on raids of settlers’ homes, surrenders (1886), prison

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

SECTION

2

A Way of Life Ends

•Plains tribes depend on dwindling buffalo for survival

•Hired hunters kill millions of buffalo for sport, railroads, factories

•Some Plains tribes turn to Paiute prophet, Wovoka, for hope

•Preaches whites will be removed, tribes will freely hunt buffalo

•Wovoka’s vision quickly spreads among Plains peoples

Continued . . .

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

SECTION

2

continued A Way of Life Ends

•Wovoka’s followers flee reservations, U.S. troops track them down

•Wovoka’s followers start to surrender to troops, someone fires a shot

•U.S. troops massacre 300 Native Americans—Wounded Knee Massacre

•Ends Native American armed resistance in the West

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SECTION

2

The Dawes Act Fails

•White reformers call for better treatment of Native Americans:

- feel assimilation is only way for Native

Americans to survive

•Dawes Act(1887):

- encourages Native Americans to reject traditions,

become farmers

- divides reservations into plots of land

- sends Native American children to schools, learn

white culture

Dawes Act does little to help Native Americans

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

Section 3

Life in the West

Diverse groups of people help to shape both the reality and the myth of the West.

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SECTION

3

Life in the West

Women in the West

•Homestead—piece of land and the house on it

•On a homestead, women rarely see neighbors, do cooking, first aid

Image

•Women often work as teachers, servants, do sewing, laundry

•Some women run dance halls, boarding houses

•In most Western territories, women own property, control own money

•Wyoming Territory gives women the vote (1869)

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SECTION

3

The Rise of Western Cities

•Gold, silver strikes cause cities to grow rapidly in the West

Chart

•Denver quickly becomes capital of Colorado Territory (1867)

•Railroad brings rapid growth to Denver, Omaha, Portland, other cities

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SECTION

3

Mexicanos in the Southwest

•For centuries, Southwest is home to Mexicanos

•Mexicanos—southwesterners of Spanish descent who come from Mexico

•Railroads spur increase of white settlers in Southwest (1880s, 1890s)

•Mexicanos lose economic, political power, land to white settlers

•Hispanic society survives only in New Mexico Territory

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SECTION

3

The Myth of the Old West

•“Dime novels” portray West as heroic place filled with adventures

•Sometimes hero was a real person, plots are fictitious, exaggerated

•Western myth continues with novels, plays, movies:

- often show whites as heroes

- usually show Native Americans as villains

- ignore African Americans

•William “Buffalo Bill” Codybrings Wild West show to the world

Image

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SECTION

3

The Real West

•First cowhands are Mexican vaqueros

•Native Americans, African Americans help with cattle ranching

•African Americans serve in U.S. Army, known as “buffalo soldiers”

Image

•Chinese immigrants help greatly in building railroads

•Native American attacks often caused by broken treaties

•U.S. government contributes greatly to white settlement

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

Section 4

Farming and Populism

A wave of farmers move to the Plains in the 1800s and face many economic

problems.

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SECTION

4

Farming and Populism

U.S. Government Encourages Settlement

•U.S. government passes Homestead Act(1862):

- offers free land to anyone who will live on,

improve it for 5 years

•Reconstruction ends, African Americans face discrimination in South

•Many migrate to Kansas, call themselves Exodusters

Image

•Many Europeans immigrate to the West

•U.S. sells land to railroads, railroads resell much land to settlers

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SECTION

4

Life on the Farming Frontier

•Farmers on the plains build homes out of blocks of sod

Image

•Farmers are called sodbusters, dig deep wells, face harsh weather

•Inventions like steel plow, reaper help farmers face challenges

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SECTION

4

The Problems of Farmers

•As farmers grow more food, prices for crops drop (1870s)

•Farmers have to pay more for machinery, railroad rates

•Farmers form Grange—group meets social needs of farm families

•Form cooperatives—organizations owned, run by members:

-buy grain elevators

- sell crops directly to merchants

- allow farmers to keep more profits

•U.S. states regulate freight rates, storage charges

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SECTION

4

The Rise of Populism

•Farm groups form Populist Party, or People’s Party (1890)

•Want U.S. to adopt free silver policy to increase inflation

•Inflation would increase crop prices, help farmers pay back loans

•Opponents want U.S. to keep gold standard to keep prices down

•Gold standard—U.S. backs every dollar with certain amount of gold

•Populist presidential candidate loses but has a good showing (1892)

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SECTION

4

The Election of 1896

•Nation suffers through depression, the Panic of 1893

•Money issues matter more to voters

•Populists back Democrat William Jennings Bryanfor president

Image

•Farmers in South, West vote overwhelmingly for Bryan

•Industrialists, bankers, business leaders vote for William McKinley

•McKinley wins presidential election by half million votes

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SECTION

4

The Closing of the Frontier

•Indian Territory, last remaining open land

•Oklahoma land rush, settlers claim land that Native Americans once had

Image

•Indian Territory becomes Oklahoma Territory (1890), frontier ends

•Frederick Jackson Turner writes that end of frontier marks end of era

•Today many historians disagree, think U.S. remains land of opportunity

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The bolter 1904 charles m russell

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