How to Cite Right . Focus on MLA and APA. Why?. Why cite ? To lend credibility of experts to ideas and information To give credit where credit is due To allow readers to consult the sources for more information or ideas
Focus on MLA and APA
Why learn to make good citations yourself?
Why are there different styles?
These two items form a cross-referencing system. (An in-text citation leads the reader to an entry on the list at the end of the paper.)
*Examples of signal phrases:
According to J. Brown,
As John Brown states/stated,
According to John Smith, “Edgar Allan Poe’s detective stories introduced a staple of British literature into the American market” (98).
Marella Gomez states that 78% of first-year students surveyed in 2010 at Washington State University reported having written at least five essays throughout the year (55).
One researcher has concluded, “Too much consumption of potato chips resulted in high blood pressure due to high salt content in 80% of those studied “(Brownell 185-86).
(Note the use of present tense in signal phrases.)
Yanovski and Yanovski (2002) reported that “the current state of the treatment for obesity is similar to the state of the treatment of hypertension several decades ago” (p. 600).
Yanovski and Yanovski (2002) explained that sibutramine suppresses appetite by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (p. 594).
Obese children often engage in limited physical activity (Sothern & Gordon, 2003, p. 104).
(Note the use of past tense in signal phrases.)
Wineapple, Brenda. White Heat: The Friendship of Emily Dickinson and Thomas Wentworth Higginson. NY: Knopf, 2008. Print.
Blackburn, Robin. “Economic Democracy: Meaningful, Desirable, Feasible?” Daedalus 136.3 (2007): 36-45. Print.
Heyen, William. “Sunlight.” American Poetry Review 36.2 (2007): 55-56. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 24 Sept. 2009.
Article or other selection from a book-length collection:
Yamada, Mitsuye. “Guilty on Both Counts.” Asian-American Literature: An Anthology. Ed. Shirley Geok-lin Lim. Lincolnwood: NTC, 2000. 151-54. Print.
American Library Association. American Library Association. ALA, 2008. Web. 14 Jan. 2009.
England, J. (2008). A billion lives: An eyewitness report from the frontlines of humanity. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Zhang, L. (2008). Teachers’ styles of thinking: An exploratory study. The Journal of Psychology, 142, 37-55.
Eskritt, M., & McLeod, K. (2008). Children’s note taking as a mnemonic tool. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101, 52-74. doi:10.1016/jecp.2008.05/007
Denton, N. A. (2006). Segregation and Discrimination in housing. In R. G. Bratt, M. E. Stone, & C. Hartman (Eds.), A right to housing: Foundation of a new social agenda (pp. 61-81). Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
National Institute on Media and the Family. (2009). Mobile networking. In Guide to social networking: Risks. Retrieved from http://www.mediafamily.org/network_pdf/MediaWise_Guide_to_Social_Networking_Risks_09.pdf