The crinoline period
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1850-1870. Chelsea Bell Southern Methodist University MSA 3325 Spring 2013. The Crinoline Period. Cutaway view of crinoline, Punch magazine, August 1856. Historical Background. England. Queen Victoria exemplified the B ritish ideal of womanhood

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The crinoline period

1850-1870

Chelsea Bell

Southern Methodist University

MSA 3325

Spring 2013

The Crinoline Period

Cutaway view of crinoline, Punch magazine, August 1856


The crinoline period

Historical Background

England

  • Queen Victoria exemplified the British ideal of womanhood

  • Mid-century Britain enjoyed great prosperity

  • Britain hosted the Great Exhibition of 1851

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

Historical Background

France

  • Louis Napoleon becomes Napoleon III and the Second French Republic becomes the Second Empire

  • France experienced economic growth and Paris was rebuilt

  • Paris again became the center of European fashion with the help of Charles Frederick Worth

  • Napoleon III abdicated and fled to Britain in 1870

  • The Second Empire vanished and was replaced by the Third Republic

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

Historical Background

United States

  • Abraham Lincoln elected President in 1860

  • Southern states secede and form the Confederacy

  • North vs. South in the American Civil War

  • Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863

  • Lincoln Assassinated in 1865

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

Charles Frederick Worth

The Father of Haute Couture

The Empress Eugénie (Eugénie de Montijo, 1826–1920, Condesa de Teba), 1854Franz XaverWinterhalter (German, 1805–1873)

Empress Elisabeth in Courtly Gala Dress with Diamond Stars, 1865Franz XaverWinterhalter (German, 1805–1873)

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

ChambreSyndicale de la Haute Couture

presently the Fédérationfrançaise de la couture

  • Originated in 1868 and is still active today

  • The governing body of the French fashion industry

  • Sets the dates and location for French fashion week

  • Establishes industry standards on clothing

  • Establishes standards on the use of the word “haute couture”

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

Sewing Machine

  • The Singer Sewing machine hit the market in 1851

  • The number of sewing machines doubled between 1860 and 1865

  • Became a vital factor in the development of industry

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

CostumeforWomen

The Crinoline Period

Fashion Plate, 1853

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

CostumeforWomen

Cage Crinoline

Steel Cage Crinoline, 1858

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

Undergarments

Getting Dressed

Chemise

Drawers

Corset

Crinoline

Corset cover

Petticoat

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

CostumeforWomen

Daytime dresses

Day dresses, 1861

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

CostumeforWomen

Evening dresses

Portrait of Princesse Albert de Broglie, née Joséphine-Eléonore-Marie-Pauline de Galard de Brassac de Béarn, 1853

Jean AugusteDominqueIngres (French, 1780-1867)

Charles Frederick Worth, circa 1860

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

Fashion & Celebrity

The Garibaldi Blouse

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Past patterns #709

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

Dress Reform

The “Bloomer” Costume

  • Consisted of a short skirt over Turkish Trousers

  • Initially adopted by feminist Elizabeth Smith Miller after a trip to Europe

  • Named for Amelia Bloomer who adopted the style and wrote about it favorably

  • Provoked much ridicule

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

CostumeforWomen

A caricature sequence of posed joke photographs, circa 1860, showing five stages of putting on a crinoline

The Media

A packing dilemma

The hazards of public transportation

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The crinoline period

CostumeEvolution

1850-1870

The Crinoline Period: 1850-1870


The bustle period and the nineties

1870-1900

Chelsea Bell

Southern Methodist University

MSA 3325

Spring 2013

The Bustle Period and the Nineties


The crinoline period

Historical Background

1870-1890

England

France

United States

  • The period began with the shock of the Franco-Prussian War

  • Napoleon III surrendered to the Prussian armies and fled to England

  • The Second Empire ended and was replaced by the Third Republic

  • Paris endured a bloody Civil War known as the Commune

  • The Civil War had ended

  • The country was united from East to West by railroads

  • Settlers were rapidly moving westward

  • Industrialization, urbanization, and immigration were continuing at a rapid pace

  • Victoria had already been queen for over 30 when the bustle arrived as popular fashion

  • Industrial England was experiencing an economic boom

  • England experienced a gradual extension of voting rights

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Evolution of the Bustle

1870-1878

1867

1873

Daytime dress, 1874

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Evolution of the Bustle

1878-1883

1877

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Evolution of the Bustle

1884-1890

1885

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Evolution of the Bustle

A Visual Timeline

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Undergarments

1870-1890

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Active Sports & Clothing

1870-1890

Bathing costume, 1874

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Manufacturing

Textile and Clothing Production

  • Power looms replaced handlooms

  • Synthetic dyes became common and were more reliable

  • Silks were weighted

  • Cotton fabrics were improved with mercerizing

  • Women’s ready-to-wear clothing became available in department stores

  • Mail-order catalogs proved successful for rural shoppers

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Visual Arts & Costume

Pre-Raphaelite Dress

May Morris by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1872

Jane Morris by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1868

Symphony in White No 1

by James MccNeill Whistler, 1862

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Visual Arts & Costume

Aesthetic Dress

Oscar Wilde, 1882

Countess Brownlow,

1879

Couple in Aesthetic Dress, 1880s

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Visual Arts & Costume

Aesthetic Dress

A Private View at the Royal Academy 1881

William Powell Frith

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Visual Arts & Costume

Art Nouveau

House of Worth, 1898

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Costume for Women

The 1890s

Fashion Plate, 1892

Evening gowns, 1893

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Costume for Women

The 1890s

Tailor-mades, 1890s

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Costume for Women

The 1890s

1890s

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Costume for Women

The 1890s

Walking Suits, 1894

Bicycle suit, 1890s

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


The crinoline period

Costume for Men

1870-1900

The Bustle Period and the Nineties: 1870-1900


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