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Broadband/Wireless for Peadar. Transmission Theory. What happens between the time that a signal begins to propagate down a wire and the time that it reaches its destination Digital Transmission Speed “How fast is your internet connection?” www.bandwidthplace.com/speedtest Bit Rate

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transmission theory
Transmission Theory
  • What happens between the time that a signal begins to propagate down a wire and the time that it reaches its destination
  • Digital Transmission Speed
    • “How fast is your internet connection?”
    • www.bandwidthplace.com/speedtest
  • Bit Rate
    • Bits per second
    • Number of information bits which can be transferred in a single second
    • Information bit being a 1 or 0
transmission theory1
Transmission Theory
  • Messaging through closed medium
  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)
    • Copper wire
  • RJ-45 Jacks
  • Optical Fibre
    • Uses light rather voltage to send 1 & 0
modems
Modems
  • Ordinary telephone lines
    • Very useful for low-speed data transmission
    • Most homes already have a phoneline, thus no need for IT investment
    • Analog transmission
    • Computers work with digital transmission
  • Modem transforms digital computer signals into an analog form and back into digital signals
  • Internal, External, PCI Card (Laptop)
modem standards
Modem Standards
  • Speed Standards
    • V.90 allows modem to receive at 56kbps & send at 33.6
    • V.34 -> 33.6kbps
    • V.32 -> 14.4kbps
  • Error Correction and Data Compression Standards
    • V.42 allows retransmitting information that was garbled during transmission
modem alternatives
Modem Alternatives
  • Speed Problem
    • Analog phone line has a max of 33kbps for transmission
    • Higher Speed Connections needed which are called broadband access services
  • Alternatives to Modems
    • Broadband
    • ISDN, DSL, ADSL, Cable, Satellite etc.
broadband infrastructure
Broadband Infrastructure
  • What is broadband?
    • High-speed internet access which allows clients to connect to the Internet up to 30 times faster than using a dial-up (DSL)
    • Any “always on, high speed connection” to the Internet
    • Increased business usage of Internet resources
      • File sharing
      • File downloading and uploading
      • Web Surfing
  • Broadband Information Web Site
    • www.broadband.gov.ie
broadband infrastructure1
Broadband Infrastructure
  • Broadband Technologies
    • ADSL
    • CABLE
    • Fixed Wireless Broadband
    • Satellite
  • Cost
    • PC, Modem, Monthly Connection Cost
how to define broadband
How to define broadband?
  • Narrowband
    • Up to 2 ISDN at 128k in both directions
  • Midband
    • Up to 512K download and 256k upload
  • Broadband
    • Above 512k download and 256k upload
broadband infrastructure2
Broadband Infrastructure
  • Contention
    • Most broadband access services share a single connection path between many customers - this is referred to as contention. A contention ratio of 40:1 means that up to 40 customers are sharing the same connection.
    • Low usage -> contention does not pose a problem
    • High usage -> the quality of the connection can deteriorate if many customers use the connection at the same time. Most of the time, you should be able to connect to 75% - 90% of the top speed available at your location
slide11
ISDN
  • Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
  • ISDN is a purely digital system
  • ISDN is a dial-up system (not always “on”)
  • Installation and usage dependend on Telecoms
  • ISDN modem needed
  • Multiplexing
  • Cost of running ISDN
slide12
DSL
  • Digital Subsriber Line (DSL) Modems
  • Entirely digital service offered by Telecoms
  • Faster than ISDN, offering transmission speeds of 384 kbps to several megabits per second
  • ADSL – Asymmetric DSL
    • High downstream speed, lower upstream speed
    • Suitable for www surfing @ home
why broadband
Why Broadband?
  • FastUp to 40 times faster than traditional dial-up internet access.
  • Always-OnNo dial-up, no time restrictions, no cut-offs.
  • ConvenientAccess the internet and talk on the telephone at the same time.
  • EntertainmentExperience smooth digital video and CD quality music
  • ValueOne flat fee per month with no additional internet call charges
slide14

The Knowledge Society

???

While the industrial age was primarily driven by

productivity increases due to greater power (Electric)

Economic progress in the 21st century will be driven

primarily by productivity increases

due to greater knowledge –

the ability to access quickly large amounts of information,

to process it in concert with others

and

to use it to produce and consume more efficiently.

ip traffic growth

Terabits of IP traffic per year (with a % break-down of that traffic for the years 1999 and 2005)

Tbps

21%

45%

24%

10%

3.5

3%

24%

20%

43%

3

2.5

Rich Media & Streaming

Peer to Peer

Server to Server

Web Pages

2

1.5

1

0.5

0

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

IP TRAFFIC GROWTH
example of capacity requirement

DOWNLOAD

DOWNLOAD

CONNECTION

CONNECTION

over 14 days, 12

over 14 days, 12

Dial-up 14.4 kbps

Dial-up 14.4 kbps

over 3 days, 5

over 3 days, 5

Dial-up 56.6 kbps

Dial-up 56.6 kbps

hours

hours

Modem at 640

Modem at 640

kbps

kbps

over 6 hours

over 6 hours

T1 at 1.5 Mbps

T1 at 1.5 Mbps

minutes

minutes

10 Mbps

10 Mbps

connection

connection

21 minutes

21 minutes

connection

connection

2 minutes

2 minutes

Example of Capacity Requirement
  • 2-hour movie with mpeg-1 compression – File Size 2 GB.
  • Video-on-demand - download times must be shorter than the play time.

TIME

hours

DSL/Cable

2 hours, 45

5 Mbps connection

43 minutes

100 Mbps

broadband stats
Broadband Stats
  • www.oecd.org (June 2005)
  • 137m broadband connections (OECD countries), up 18m compared to January 2005
  • DSL:60%
  • Cable:32%
  • Other:8% (Fixed wireless, fibre, LAN)
case study singapore
Case Study: Singapore
  • Singapore was the first country in the world to deploy ADSL commercially when SingTel launched its Magix service in November 1997
    • 2003 Summary Report
  • “Intelligent Nation 2015”
    • www.in2015.sg
case study seiss
Case Study: SEISS
  • Broadband Infrastructure Case Study:
    • SEISS
    • South East Information Society Strategy (Ireland)
seiss ict strategy action plan programme elements
SEISS ICT Strategy & Action PlanProgramme Elements

Integrated Approach to Regional ICT Development

regional municipal broadband fibre optic network

Phase 1

Municipal Fibre Optic Networks

Phase 2

Regional Interconnectivity

Regional Municipal Broadband Fibre Optic Network
typical municipal fibre optic town city network
Typical Municipal Fibre Optic Town/City Network

Tele

Hub

Telco Provider

POPs

Fas Centre

Institute of Technology

Fas Centre

Govmnt. Dept.

Railway Station

ESAT

School

Local Authority

Health Board

Industrial Park

Bank

Industrial Park

Enterprise Centre

Library

Industry

School

School

Industry

ESBi

Transformer Station

Eircom Exchange

Hospital

Switched SDH Unit, Waterford

Network Services & Management

Ethernet Connectivity for SMEs

man project
MAN Project
  • So, what’s the big deal in getting there????
  • ….and where do we lay the cable?
    • Highways
    • Water
    • Gas
man traditional utility trenching
MAN - Traditional Utility Trenching
  • Conventional Open Cut Dig
slide30
MAN
  • Conventional Open Cut Dig
slide31

MAN - Cable Installation

Co-Location Build

internet by satellite
Internet by Satellite
  • Internet -> Location doesn’t matter
    • Not for infrastructure
    • Rural areas still have a “infrastructural” disadvantage
    • Use satelite broadband access to overcome this issue
  • 2004 (USA)
    • 3.9m homes will have high-speed service via satellite
    • 9.6m homes with cable modems
    • 7m homes with digital lines (DSL & ADSL)
internet by satellite1
Internet by Satellite
  • Worldwide, data over cable exceeds wireless delivery of broadband Internet access
  • Satellite Access Options
    • One way
      • Uplink is negotiated through traditional phone modem
      • Used mainly for downloading
      • Not good for web browsing or online gaming
    • Two way
      • 2 Mbps uplink & 38 Mbps downlink
satellite broadband infrastructure
Satellite Broadband Infrastructure
  • Costs? € 1 = 2.04 SGD (November 2005)
    • Ireland: Once off installation € 125 + €270/quarter
      • From €1205 to €6300 (2MB per second)
    • Satelite broadband access
      • SOHO Bandwidth costs € 49.99 per month for 500 MB download, € 0.10 per MB thereafter.USB Satellite Receiver Purchase € 290.00
      • Enterprise Hardware Rental € 285.00 per month, Bandwidth costs € 500.00 per month for 1 GB upload/download, € 0.21 per MB thereafter
m commerce wireless communications
M-Commerce & Wireless Communications
  • Introduction
  • How is wireless technology used?
  • Wireless Applications
  • Advantages & Disadvantages
introduction
Introduction
  • Mobile users connected world-wide (Dataquest)
    • 1998: 200m
    • 2000: 400m
    • 2003: 900m
  • Mobile penetration in Europe (Dataquest)
    • 1999: 50%
    • 2000: 55%
    • 2003: 65%
  • Mobile connections outline fixed lines (2005)
    • Phone land lines -> 1.900.000
    • Mobiles -> 3.800.000
bluetooth
Bluetooth
  • Bluethooth
    • Cable Nightmare
    • Solution?
  • Bluetooth
    • …open standard for short range voice and data communication
    • …short-range radio connection between devices
    • …wireless comunication with a difference
    • …name was chosen to hightlight potential of this technology to unify the telecommunications and computing industries
bluetooth1
Bluetooth
  • Bluetooth Device
    • Communication via radio transceivers/radio modules
    • Link manager (software) identifies other Bluetooth devices, creates the link, and sends/receives data
    • 10 meter range, up to 1Mbps transmission rate
    • Transmission through physical barriers, like walls to one or many devices at the same time
    • 1500+ difference vendors have agreed to distribute Bluetooth enabled devices
piconet
Piconet

Every Bluetooth device can simultaneously maintain up to 7 connections, but only one active connection at the time. These groups (maximum of 8 devices: 1 host and 7 slaves) are called Piconets

bluetooth2
Bluetooth
  • 1994
    • Ericsson, Nokia, IBM, Toshiba, Intel hit upon the idea of bluetooth
  • 1998
    • Special Interest Group officially launched, couple of hundred members
  • 2000
    • SIG has over 2000 signed up members
  • http://www.bluetooth.com
wireless lans
Wireless LANs
  • The Big Thing in local area networking today
  • Gives mobility to users within the corporate premises
  • Not a competitor for the main wired Ethernet LAN today; extends the wired LAN’s resources to mobile users
wireless lan wlan access point
Wireless LAN (WLAN) Access Point

Large Wired LAN

Control

Message

Access

Point

Ethernet Switch

UTP

Radio

Transmission

Laptop

Mobile Client

Router

Access point controls wireless stations (transmission power, etc.)

Server

Internet

typical 802 11 wireless lan operation with access points
Typical 802.11 Wireless LAN Operation with Access Points

Ethernet

Switch

802.3 Frame

802.11 Frame

UTP

Radio

Transmission

Access

Point A

Laptop

802.3 Frame

Access point bridges the networks (translates between the 802.11 wireless frame and the Ethernet 802.3 frame used within the LAN)

Client PC

Server

Large Wired LAN

slide48
WLAN
  • 802.11b
    • 112 meter range
    • Up to 11Mbps
  • New Version 802.11a
    • 90 meter range
    • Up to 54Mbps
  • 802.11g
    • Added Security
802 11 security
802.11 Security
  • Automated Drive-By Hacking
    • Can read traffic from outside the corporate walls
    • Can also send malicious traffic into the network
802 11 security1
802.11 Security
  • No Security by Default
    • In older products, the installation default was to have no security at all

No

Security

No

Security

802 11 security2
802.11 Security
  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
    • Initial flawed security method for 802.11 devices
    • All stations share the same encryption key with the access point
    • This key is rarely changed because of the difficulty of coordinating the many users sharing it
802 11 security3
802.11 Security
  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
    • Shared static keys means that a large volume of traffic is encrypted with the same key
    • With so much traffic generated with one unchanging key, cryptanalysts to crack the key by collecting data for a few days
    • Once the key is cracked, the attacker can read all messages and send attack messages into the network without going through a firewall filter
802 11 security4
802.11 Security
  • Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
    • Software that automates the hacking process is widely available
      • Locate vulnerable access points by driving around (war driving)
      • Collecting traffic and cracking the key.
fixed broadband wireless
Fixed Broadband Wireless
  • Wireless transmission for data communications
    • Antenna on roof of each building which is connected
    • 56 KM range
    • Up to 1Gbps (1 billion bits per second) download
    • Up to 512Kbps upload
wireless applications
Wireless Applications
  • Education
  • Military
  • Business
  • Entertainment
  • Travel
  • Other
wireless applications1
Wireless Applications
  • Education
    • Ideal for colleges & schools
    • No need to plug & unplug
    • Flexibility
    • Bluetooth -> Real-time information exchange
    • Costs savings for college
      • Installation & maintenance costs
      • Installation & maintenance of computer labs
wireless applications2
Wireless Applications
  • Business
    • Real-time data access in meetings which can be held anywhere 
    • Savings
      • Network Installation & Maintenance
    • Police Services
    • News & Media
    • Property Agencies & Car Sales
    • Retailing
slide58
RFID
  • Radio Frequency Identification
  • Advanced Barcode (1970s) technology
    • ~ €0.50 per chip
  • RFID are intelligent bar codes that can communicate with other devices on the same network
    • “Contact” or “Line of Sight” is not necessary
    • Doesn’t need to be scanned physically
    • Transmits up to 30 meters
    • Reader can read up to 40 RFID tags per second
slide59
RFID
  • RFID Components
    • TAG
      • Chip (up to 128 bites), RadioTransmitter
    • READER
      • Reads data from tags
    • HOST
      • Application’s “nerve centre”
      • Uses data received from and sent to RFID for logistics and commercial management
  • Where could RFID be implemented and used?
    • Pay by weight management systems
    • Tolling System “Eazy Pass” is based on RFID
    • Inventory Management, Retailing
    • “Precise and current data – Anytime and anywhere” from manufacturer til Point-of-Sale destination (Producer to Customer)
rfid case study
RFID – Case Study
  • Metro Group’s “Future Store” – A platform for future retailing
    • www.metrogroup.de
    • 3rd biggest European Retailer, 5th world-wide
    • 240.000 employees in 30 countries, €56b Revenue
    • Metro Cash&Carry, MediaMarkt (Electronics), Praktiker (DIY)
rfid case study1
RFID – Case Study
  • Rheinberg, Germany, Opened April 2003
  • RFID system implemented for both “backend” and “frontend” usage
    • PSA (Personal Shopping Assistant) – Touchscreen on shopping trolley
    • “Intelligent System” reacts to customer need
    • Intelligent Scales
    • Store-wide navigation System
    • Information Terminals & “Everywhere Display” (ISW)
    • Check-out options
  • RFID in shopping trolley: The more in use the more checkout staff
  • RFID on products: Inventory control
    • Smart Shelf & Intelligent Store Management
  • www.future-store.org
rfid case study2
RFID – Case Study
  • Benefits
    • Optimised inventory control
    • Reduced operating costs
    • Increased customer satisfaction
    • Increased efficiency of Supply Chain Management. Parties have access to information via RFID management system
      • Manufacturer, Data Warehouse, Distributor
      • Fully Automised system
rfid case study4
RFID – Case Study

Let’s sit back and watch a movie

1) RFID Innovations

2) The “Future Store”

rfid privacy concerns
RFID – Privacy Concerns
  • RFID smartcards usually hold information about product, however, can be linked to personal information
    • Purchase can be linked to client (CC, Loyalty scheme)
    • Gillette and Tesco (UK) used spychip technology
      • Everyone buying Gillette Mach3 razor blades at Tesco’s Cambridge store had his or her picture taken. “Picked-up” product triggers hidden camera at shelf and check-out.
  • www.spychips.org
  • Video
rfid the future
RFID – The Future
  • RFID market valued at US$1.1b by 2007
    • Germany and UK will account for around 40% of European Market
  • Smart Fridge
    • Scans its content and sends information via Internet to retailer’s customer “Internet Shopping List”
  • RFID Check Out
    • Fully automated
    • Money is debited from clients account
  • Radar Golfballs
    • BPS (Ball Positioning System)
    • US$250 per set, first shipment in June 2005
  • RFID tags in clothes
    • Tesco, WalMart, Metro
    • 140 pieces/hour (worker) vs 4000-8000 pieces/hour (RFID)
  • RFID based passpords containing biometric data
    • Currently tested by US Government, introduced by Q4 2005
case study superquinn
Case Study: Superquinn
  • SuperScan Initiative www.superquinn.ie
    • Traditional: Products scanned at check-out, time-wasting
    • Now: “Scan as you shop” using hand-held scanner
      • Client always gets the total amount of shopping displayed on scanner
    • Take device and scan your superclub loyalty scheme card
    • “Scan as you shop” using barcode technology
    • Return scanner and take superscan slip, proceed to checkout and pay
      • Products which couldn’t be scanned will be scanned at checkout manually
wireless applications3
Wireless Applications
  • Entertainment
    • Event Management
    • Lost, stolen, or counterfeited tickets
    • Real-time game statistics to PDA or other wireless devices
    • FIFA Worldcup 2006 (Germany)
wireless applications4
Wireless Applications
  • Travel & Tourism industry
    • Wireless global positioning systems (GPS) & emergency roadside assistance
    • Wireless Internet Access @ airports (Changi, Copenhagen)
    • Airplanes (SIA)
    • Hotels (Raffles Singapore)
wireless applications5
Wireless Applications
  • Travel Case Study
    • Connexion by BoeingSM gives you access to high-speed Internet while in flight. With Connexion by Boeing, you can check email, browse the Internet, corporate Intranet, Inflight News and other travel services, such as connection flights etc.
wireless applications7
Wireless Applications
  • Who is using it?
    • BA, Lufthansa
    • SIA, SAS, JAL will all connect soon
  • Cheap service and high satisfaction rate
    • Internet Flight
      • US$13 for flights < 3 hours
      • US$20 for flights >3 & <6 hours
      • US$30 for flights > 6 hours
    • Internet Minutes
      • US$8 for 30minutes & flights < 3 hours
      • US$10 for 30 minutes & flights > 3 hours
      • US$0.25 per additional minute
  • http://www.connexionbyboeing.com
wireless applications8
Wireless Applications
  • Other
    • Health Care
      • Hospitals & Global treatment of diseases and injuries
      • Eliminate the “Expert Problem”
      • Emergency Services
      • Prescriptions & Pharmacy integration
    • Home Usage
      • Intelligent Fridge
      • Wireless Home Network (SWAP)
      • Wireless ISP
  • New Business Opportunities
aussie hair products screensaver wallpaper
Aussie Hair Products Screensaver & Wallpaper
  • Proctor and Gamble wanted to promote the Aussie hair care range to a youthful audience by allowing them` to download a free mobile wallpaper and screen saver to their phone
itv2 supernatural launch reminder
iTV2 Supernatural Launch Reminder
  • Supernatural allowed iTV2 to promoted it’s new series on Yahoo! with SMS enabled banners to remind viewers to watch the show on the launch day.
citr en test drive
Citröen test drive
  • 15 second clip from Citröen advert
  • Get viewers to book a test drive
  • Delivery can be triggered from Website, inbound text message or web banner
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