Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements
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Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements. Including the Geological History of North Carolina!. Classification of Rock. Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

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Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements

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Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements

Including the Geological History of North Carolina!


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by:


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by: compaction – great pressure from


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by: compaction – great pressure from the layers of sediment above. It can only work if the sediments are


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by: compaction – great pressure from the layers of sediment above. It can only work if the sediments are small (e.g. shale & siltstone from clay and silt)


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified,


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers.

alabaster


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers.

alabaster

limestone


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. Evaporites will form if the rate of evaporation is great.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. Evaporites will form if the rate of evaporation is great.

halite


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. Evaporites will form if the rate of evaporation is great.

  • All chemical sedimentary rocks are monomineralic.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal]


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]).


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]).

Oolitic limestone


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]).

Oolitic limestone


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]).

Oolitic limestone


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]). The shell material, however, is not organic.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

A. Igneous -


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.

1. Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.

  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.

  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.

  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate. Dark colors (mafic) harden first (higher temp); while light colors (felsic) harden last.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.

  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate. Dark colors (mafic) harden first (higher temp); while light colors (felsic) harden last.

  • The longer it takes for magma to cool, the _____ the crystals will be


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.

  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate. Dark colors (mafic) harden first (higher temp); while light colors (felsic) harden last.

  • The longer it takes for magma to cool, the larger the crystals will be (coarse grained).


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Intrusive Igneous Rocks

granite


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Intrusive Igneous Rocks

diorite


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Intrusive Igneous Rocks

gabbro


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Intrusive Igneous Rocks

Pegmatite


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed. If cracks lead to the surface, extrusions are formed (volcanoes).


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed. If cracks lead to the surface, extrusions are formed (volcanoes).


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

2. Extrusive (eruptive or volcanic) rocks form from


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly.

basalt

Lava cooling into basalt


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly. Glassy texture shows it cooled very fast (usually under water).


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly. Glassy texture shows it cooled very fast (usually under water).

obsidian


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly. Glassy texture shows it cooled very fast (usually under water).

  • Sometimes the lava is ejected onto the surface and cools with gases trapped inside pockets (“vesicles”) in the rock.

pumice


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

B. Metamorphic Rock – used to be


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

1. Regional – occurs over wide areas,


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

slate


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

slate

(used to be shale; the pressure made it darker & denser, the shale layers became foliated)


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

quartzite


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

quartzite

(used to be sandstone; the “scaliness” is from the distorted sand grains)


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

gneiss


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

gneiss

(used to be granite; the heat & pressure made the minerals recrystallize and form bands)


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Contact (thermal) – occurs at the interface of hot magma and existing rock.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Contact (thermal) – occurs at the interface of hot magma and existing rock. Chemical changes forming new minerals often occur.

Pix of meta rocks

Quartzite (used to be sandstone)


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

  • Contact (thermal) – occurs at the interface of hot magma and existing rock. Chemical changes forming new minerals often occur.

Marble bookends (used to be limestone)

More pix of meta


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition,


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition,

What can we infer from this rock?

Pix of conglom


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition,

Large rounded particles imply that this conglomerate formed from sediment at the mouth of a river.

Pix of conglom


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, structure,

Foliation in this schist implies that the basalt underwent tremendous pressure deep under the surface.

Pix of schist


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, structure and texture.

The course grains in this diorite implies that it cooled deep within the crust.


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, structure and texture.

The course grains in this diorite implies that it cooled deep within the crust.

The glassy luster in this obsidian implies that it cooled quickly, most likely under water.

Pix of obsidian


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

- the composition of sedimentary rocks suggest that they had varied origins

conglomerate


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

- the composition of sedimentary rocks suggest that they had varied origins

- some rocks show multiple transformations


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

- the composition of sedimentary rocks suggest that they had varied origins

- some rocks show multiple transformations

- the age of rocks ≠ the age of the earth


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family (darker & denser),


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family (darker & denser), while continental igneous rocks tend to be of the granite family


Unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family (darker & denser), while continental igneous rocks tend to be of the granite family (lighter).

(Granitic)

(Basaltic)

Pix of crustal rock


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