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Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements. Including the Geological History of North Carolina!. Classification of Rock. Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

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unit 3 rocks soil erosion and mass movements

Unit 3 Rocks, Soil, Erosion and Mass Movements

Including the Geological History of North Carolina!

slide2

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

slide3

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed

slide4

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

slide5

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

slide6

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified

slide7

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by:

slide8

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by: compaction – great pressure from

slide9

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by: compaction – great pressure from the layers of sediment above. It can only work if the sediments are

slide10

Classification of Rock

Most rocks have a number of minerals in common. Rocks are grouped on the basis of their physical and chemical properties, but most importantly, their origin.

1. Sedimentary Rocks

Most form under water. Layering (“stratification”) will indicate this.

Sedimentary rocks are classified according to the way they were formed and what was deposited:

A. Clastics – weathered particles from pre-existing rocks

The particles were lithified (turned into rock) by: compaction – great pressure from the layers of sediment above. It can only work if the sediments are small (e.g. shale & siltstone from clay and silt)

slide12

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together

slide13

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

slide14

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified,

slide15

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils.

slide16

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils.

slide17

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils.

slide18

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

slide19

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was
slide20

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water.
slide21

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers.
slide22

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers.

alabaster

slide23

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers.

alabaster

limestone

slide24

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. Evaporites will form if the rate of evaporation is great.
slide25

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. Evaporites will form if the rate of evaporation is great.

halite

slide26

Cementation – is needed for larger particles. A cement (a mineral that dissolves in water - - CaCO3) holds the sediments together (e.g. sandstone & conglomerate from sand & pebbles).

Clastics are usually stratified, and often contain fossils. These help indicate what conditions existed at the time of sedimentation.

  • Chemical Sedimentary rocks formed from material that was dissolved in the water. When the water gets saturated, the minerals precipitate out and form solid rock layers. Evaporites will form if the rate of evaporation is great.
  • All chemical sedimentary rocks are monomineralic.
slide28

Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal]

slide29

Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]).

slide30

Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]).

Oolitic limestone

slide31

Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]).

Oolitic limestone

slide32

Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]).

Oolitic limestone

slide33

Organic sedimentary rocks form as a result of biologic processes (decay of plant material [e.g. coal] or cementing of shell material [e.g. fossil limestone]). The shell material, however, is not organic.

slide36

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.
slide37

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.

1. Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed

slide38

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.
  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface.
slide39

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.
  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate.
slide40

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.
  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate. Dark colors (mafic) harden first (higher temp); while light colors (felsic) harden last.
slide41

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.
  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate. Dark colors (mafic) harden first (higher temp); while light colors (felsic) harden last.
  • The longer it takes for magma to cool, the _____ the crystals will be
slide42

2. Nonsedimentary Rocks

  • Igneous - form as lava or magma cools & solidifies.
  • Intrusive (plutonic) rocks formed under the earth’s surface. It usually takes a long time to cool, so the minerals crystallize at different temperatures and separate. Dark colors (mafic) harden first (higher temp); while light colors (felsic) harden last.
  • The longer it takes for magma to cool, the larger the crystals will be (coarse grained).
slide49

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth.

slide50

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed.

slide51

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed.

slide52

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed. If cracks lead to the surface, extrusions are formed (volcanoes).

slide53

All molten rock originates in the upper mantle and lower crust. Heat comes from pressure and radioactive decay of the materials deep within the earth. When magma is forced through cracks in the bedrock, intrusions are formed. If cracks lead to the surface, extrusions are formed (volcanoes).

slide56

Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled

slide57

Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly.

basalt

Lava cooling into basalt

slide58

Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly. Glassy texture shows it cooled very fast (usually under water).

slide59

Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly. Glassy texture shows it cooled very fast (usually under water).

obsidian

slide60

Extrusive (eruptiveorvolcanic) rocks form from lava that cooled on the surface. Small crystal grains indicate that it cooled quickly. Glassy texture shows it cooled very fast (usually under water).

  • Sometimes the lava is ejected onto the surface and cools with gases trapped inside pockets (“vesicles”) in the rock.

pumice

slide63

Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

slide64

Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

1. Regional – occurs over wide areas,

slide65

Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions.
slide66

Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

slate

slide67

Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

slate

(used to be shale; the pressure made it darker & denser, the shale layers became foliated)

slide69

Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

quartzite

slide70

Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

quartzite

(used to be sandstone; the “scaliness” is from the distorted sand grains)

slide71

Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

gneiss

slide72

Metamorphic Rock – used to be other kinds of rocks but they were changed as a result of heat, pressure and/or chemical changes.

  • Regional – occurs over wide areas, usually due to extreme temperature and pressure conditions. This happens deep within the crust, usually due to mountain building processes.

gneiss

(used to be granite; the heat & pressure made the minerals recrystallize and form bands)

slide74

Contact (thermal) – occurs at the interface of hot magma and existing rock. Chemical changes forming new minerals often occur.

Pix of meta rocks

Quartzite (used to be sandstone)

slide75

Contact (thermal) – occurs at the interface of hot magma and existing rock. Chemical changes forming new minerals often occur.

Marble bookends (used to be limestone)

More pix of meta

slide77

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition,

What can we infer from this rock?

Pix of conglom

slide78

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition,

Large rounded particles imply that this conglomerate formed from sediment at the mouth of a river.

Pix of conglom

slide79

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, structure,

Foliation in this schist implies that the basalt underwent tremendous pressure deep under the surface.

Pix of schist

slide80

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, structure and texture.

The course grains in this diorite implies that it cooled deep within the crust.

slide81

We can learn a lot about the environment when rock formed by looking at its composition, structure and texture.

The course grains in this diorite implies that it cooled deep within the crust.

The glassy luster in this obsidian implies that it cooled quickly, most likely under water.

Pix of obsidian

slide83

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

slide84

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled” - sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

slide85

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

slide86

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

slide87

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

slide88

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

slide89

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

slide90

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

- the composition of sedimentary rocks suggest that they had varied origins

conglomerate

slide91

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

- the composition of sedimentary rocks suggest that they had varied origins

- some rocks show multiple transformations

slide92

The Rock Cycle

There is evidence that rocks continue to be “recycled”

- sedimentation & sedimentary rocks

- similarities between metamorphic & other rocks

- transition zones from unaltered to altered rock can be found where magma came in contact with local rock

- lava can be seen cooling into igneous rock

- the composition of sedimentary rocks suggest that they had varied origins

- some rocks show multiple transformations

- the age of rocks ≠ the age of the earth

slide95

Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family (darker & denser), while continental igneous rocks tend to be of the granite family

slide96

Oceanic igneous rocks tend to be in the basalt family (darker & denser), while continental igneous rocks tend to be of the granite family (lighter).

(Granitic)

(Basaltic)

Pix of crustal rock

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